CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN BULGARIAN AND TURKISH CAROB PODS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
AbstractCarob, Ceratonia siliqua, is cultivated for ornamental and industrial purposes in many Mediterranean countries. This study assessed carob pulp and syrup, a rich source of carbohydrates and sugars, by evaluating content of reducing sugars and total sugars in carob pulp before extraction of syrups. We identified the sugar content before and after treatment by using thin-layer (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). It was established that total sugars increased with extraction and heat treatment. Sucrose (34.2 g/100 g dry weight; dw), glucose (11.1 g/100 g dw) and fructose (6.5 g/100 g dw) were the major sugars identified and quantified in pulp of the Turkish carob. Ceratonia siliqua pods of Turkish origin produced higher levels of total and of reducing sugars (fructose and sucrose) than did the pods from Bulgaria. The carbohydrate content in the syrup prepared from Turkish carob pods was highest, with the sucrose content especially reaching up to 45 g/100 g dw. The data are discussed in terms of nutritional and energy value of the carob pod. The carob and obtained products (flour or syrup) are identified as highly caloric and as a prospective energy source alternative to cocoa and its products.
AOAC (2007). International, Official methods of analysis, 18th edn. 2005; 2007 (On-line). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
Avallone, R., Plessi, M., Barldi, M., & Monzani, A. (1997). Determination of chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua): protein, fat, carbohydrates, and tannins. J Food Compos Anal.; 10:166-172.
Ayaz, F. A., Torun, H., Glew, R. H., Bak, Z. D., Chuang, L. T., Presley, J. M., & Andrews, R. (2009). Nutrient Content of Carob Pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Flour Prepared Commercially and Domestically. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.; 64: 286–292.
Ayaz, F. A., Torun, H., Ayaz, S., Correia, P. J., Alaiz, M., Sanz, C., Gruz ,J., & Strnad, M. (2007). Determination of chemical composition of Anotolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.): sugars, amino and organic acid, minerals and phenolic compounds. J Food Qualm.; 30: 1040–1055.
Battle, I., & Tous, J. (1997). Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.), International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Via delle Sette Chiese 142 00145 Rome, Italy.
Calixto, F. S., & Canellas, J. (1982). Components of nutritional interest in carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua). J. Sci. Food Agriculture; 33:1319-1323.
Dimitrova, M., Petkova, N. Tr., Denev, P. P., & Aleksieva, I. N. (2015). Carbohydrate Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Certain Morus Species, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research; 7(3); 621-627.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K., Hamilton, J., Rebers, P., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances, Analytical Chemistry, 28 (3); 350-356.
El Batal, H., Hasib, A., Ouatmane, A., Dehbi, F., Jaouad, A., & Boulli, A. (2011). Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.), Arabian Journal of Chemistry, in press. DOI:10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.10.012
Fadel, H. H. M., Abdel Mageed, M. A., Abdel Samad, A. K. M. E., & Lotfy, S. N. (2006). Cocoa substitute: Evaluation of sensory qualities and flavor stability. Eur. Food Res. Technol; 223: 125–131.
Fidan, H., & Sapundzhieva, T. (2015). Mineral composition of pods, seeds and flour of grafted carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Fruits. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies; XIX: 136-139.
Gubbuk, H., Kafkas, E., Guven, D., & Gunes,E. (2010). Physical and phytochemical profile of wild and domesticated carob, (Ceratonia siliqua L.) genotypes. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research; 8(4):1129-1136.
Haddarah, A. (2013). Morphological and chemical variability of Lebanese carob varieties. European Scientific Journal; 9(18): 353.
Hills, L. D. (1980). The cultivation of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). International Tree Crops Journal; 1(1): 27-36.
Hossein, V., Seyed, A. S., & Hasan, G. (2011). Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology. Ind Microbiol Biotechnol; 38:101–111.
Kahkah, El. R., Zouhair, R., Diouri, M., Ait Chitt, M., & Errakhi, R. (2015). Morphological and biochemical characterization of Morocco carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Int J Biol Med Res.; 6(2):4946-4952.
Khlifa, M., Bahloul, A., & Kitane, S. (2013). Determination of Chemical Composition of Carob Pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and its Morphological Study. J. Mater. Environ. Sci.; 4(3):348-353.
Klaus, S., Pultz, S., Thone-Reineke, C., & Wolfram, S. (2005). Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation. Int J Obes.; 29:615–623.
Kumazawa, S., Taniguchi, M., Suzuki, Y., Shimura, M., Kwon, M. S., & Nakayama, T. (2002). Antioxidant activity of polyphenols in carob pods. J Agric Food Chem; 50:373–377.
Lever, M. (1972). A new reaction for colorimetric determination of carbohydrates. Biochemistry; 47: 273–279.
Macleod, G., & Forcen, M. (1992). Analysis of volatile compounds derived from carob bean Ceratonia siliqua, Phytochem.; 31: 3113–3119.
Makris, D. P., & Kefalos, P. (2004). Carob pods (Ceratonia silique L.) as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Technol Biotechnol.; 42:105–108.
Marakis, S. G., & Marakis, G. S. (1996). Fructose syrup and ethanol from deseeded carob pod. J Food Sci Technol.; 33:108–111.
Nielsen, S. (2010). Food Analysis Laboratory Manual, Fourth Edition, Springer Science & Business Media, 186.
Papagiannopoulos, M., Wollseifen, H. R., Mellenthin, A., Haber, B., & Galensa, R. (2004). Identification and quantification of polyphenols in carob fruits (Ceratonia sliqua L.) and derived products by HPLC-UV-ESI/MS. J Agric Food Chem.; 52:2384-3791.
Petit, M. D., & Pinilla, J. M. (1995). Production and purification of a sugar syrup from carob pods. LWT-Food Sci. Technol.; 28:145–152.
Petkova, N., & Denev, P. (2013). Evaluation of fructan content of the taproots of Lactuca serriola and Sonchus oleraceus L. Scientific Bulletin Series F Biotechnologies; XVII:117–122.
Petkova, N., Vrancheva, R., Denev, P., Ivanov, I., & Pavlov, A. (2014a). A. HPLC-RID method for determination of inulin and fructooligosacharides. Acta Scientifica Naturalis; 1:99—107.
Petkova, N., Ivanov, I., Denev, P., & Pavlov, A. (2014b). Bioactive substances and free radical scavenging activities of flour from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Tubers – a comparative study. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Natural Science; 2:1773-1778.
Roukas, T. (1988). Carob Pod: A New Substrate for Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology: 174:43-53.
Sahin, H., Topuz, A., Pischetsrieder, M., & Ozdemir, F. (2009). Effect of roasting process on phenolic, antioxidant and browning properties of carob powder, Eur Food Res Technol; 230:155-161.
Santos, M., Rodrigus, A., & Teixeira, J. A. (2005). Production of dextran and fructose from carob pod extract and cheese whey by Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512 (f). Biochem Eng J; 25:1–6.
Simsek, A., & Artik, N. (2002). Değişik meyvelerden üretilen pekmezlerin bileşim unsurları üzerine bir araştırma.Gıda; 27(5):1–11.
Tassou, C. C., Drosinos, E. H., & Nychas,G. J. E. (1997). Weak antimicrobial effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) extract against food-related bacteria in culture media and model food systems. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology; 13:79-481.
Tetik, N., Turhan, I., Oziyci, H. R, & Karhan, M. (2011). Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup. Int J Food Sci Nutr.; 62(6):572-6. DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2011.560564.
Turhan, I., Bialka, K., Demirchi, A., & Karhan, M. (2010). Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresour Technol; 101:5290–5296.
Yousif, A., & Alghzawi, H. M. (2000). Processing and characterization of carob powder. Food Chem.; 69:283–287.
Zunft, H. J. F., Luber, W., Harde, H. B., Graubaum, H. J., & Gruenwald, J. (2001). Carob pulp preparation for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, advances in natural therapy, Advances in Therapy; 18(5):230-236.
Zunft, H. J., Lüder, W., Harde, A., Haber, B., Graubaum, H. J., Koebnick, C., & Grünwald, J. (2003). Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble fiber lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients, Eur J Nutr; 42(5):235–24.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
email@example.com, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz