CBU International Conference Proceedings 2019-11-27T16:17:10+01:00 Petr Hájek Open Journal Systems <p><a href="">Volumes 2016, 2017, and 2018 are indexed in Web of Science!</a></p> <p>Annually held International Cross-industry Conference accepting research articles for four sections: Economic and Business, Social Sciences, Medicine and Pharmacy and Natural Sciences and ICT.</p> <p>To participate in this forum the participants need to report and review innovative ideas with up-to-date progress and developments, discuss novel approaches to the application in their research areas (see below) and discuss challenges of doing science and education. Within such an objective, the authors are asked to submit yet non-published original articles in the following research areas:</p> <ul> <li>Economics, Banking, Trade management, Marketing, Management and Economics of a company, State service, Finance, and accounting;</li> <li>Psychology, Sociology, Pedagogy, Social sciences,&nbsp;Linguistics, Art, Religion, History, Philosophy;</li> <li>Healthcare, Veterinary topics, Medicine, Ecology,</li> <li>Natural sciences – Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Nanotechnologies, Electronics, Information, and Communication technologies</li> </ul> <p>All articles are peer-reviewed. Besides Google Scholar the proceedings are also indexed by Proquest.&nbsp;</p> Front Matter: Volume 7 (Proceedings of CBU) 2019-11-07T21:20:42+01:00 Petr Hájek Ondřej Vít <p>This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 7 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.</p> 2019-11-07T19:22:57+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Petr Hájek, Ondřej Vít DETERMINANTS OF TRANSPORT COMPANY VALUE AND THE SELECTION OF VALUATION METHODS 2019-10-23T20:01:43+02:00 Eva Adámiková Tatiana Čorejová Lenka Môcová <p>The development of a company significantly influences its final value. The value of a transport company can be determined for various legal acts, which also influence the selection of valuation methods. The view of the transport company may differ, depending on whether it is seen by investors or the company owners. Methods of evaluating a transport company, but also of all companies in expert practice, usually follow methodological procedures outlined in the legal standards. These methods are based on basic principles, namely the asset principle, the yield principle, the combined principle, and the market principle. These principles also include other methods of determining the company's value. Each method has its own specifics, a modification of only one model parameter changes the entire company value. The aim of this paper is to analyze the input data and their impact on the value of the transport company from the perspective of various methods. The paper shows the impact of the change in the rate of capitalization and g - the sustainable growth rate and the significant impact of the continuing value on the general value of the company.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STRUCTURAL DEFORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHALLENGES 2019-11-27T16:10:40+01:00 Viktor Barkhatov Iuner Kapkaev Daria Benz Pavel Kadyrov <p>The objective of the study is to determine the nature of heterogeneous structural deformations in the economy of Russia. The structural deformations result from the development strategy formed during the transitional period in the 1990s. Implementation of the strategy caused an increase in investment in the commodity sector along with its shortage in the high-tech sector; it resulted in a low knowledge-intensity level of the Russian production which became uncompetitive both on the domestic and global markets. The article covers all the aspects of the structural deformations in the Russian economy including the preconditions for these deformations to arise.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE INTERRELATION AND INTERACTION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS WITH FINANCIAL CYCLES OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY OF RUSSIA 2019-10-23T20:04:55+02:00 Viktor Barkhatov Ekaterina Lymar Ivan Koptelov <p>A market economy assumes the circularity of economic development. Many scholars have speculated on the existing relationship between economic and financial cycles. The emergence of financial markets in the early 20th century gave impetus to the development of the theory of financial cycles which account for financial ups and downs similarly with economic cycles. One of the most impactful areas of research of current trends in financial cycles is the study of how these are influenced by contemporary financial market tools, as this will help determine whether the basic phases of financial cycles can be reconciled.</p> <p>This article aims at analyzing various aspects of the relationship and the interaction of financial markets with the financial cycles of the national economy in the context of the Russian Federation. We also give consideration to the behavior of the contemporary financial system’s chief players––large corporations, credit institutions, facilitating agencies, and state authorities acting as regulators of financial and economic cycles.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ITS STRATEGIES IN GLOBAL ORGANISATION: CASE STUDY 2019-11-27T16:11:30+01:00 Kateřina Bočková Miroslav Škoda Tomáš Lengyelfalusy <p>The goal of the presented paper is to compare the different approaches of the Novartis Global IT project management in its four divisions. The basics of the project management with the focus on the global or international project management are described in the theoretical part. There are highlighted the ways of projects´ monitoring and evaluation. The history and the evolution of the project management in the context of used methods and approaches in various time periods in the particular divisions of the Novartis Global group are described in the analytical part. The comparison is used through the identification of positives and negatives of the analysed IT project management parameters. Currently we underline the importance of the communication within and outside of the projects with emphasis on the cultural differences in global project management. The results of the comparison are becoming essential for the recommendation for future project management plans in the Novartis Global group.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PRICE–VOLUME DEPENDENCE OF BITCOIN AND ITS FRACTAL ANALYSIS 2019-10-23T20:07:11+02:00 Mária Bohdalová Michal Greguš <p>Nowadays Bitcoin as cryptocurrency takes a significant place on the global financial markets. This paper analyzes the Bitcoin closing prices and traded volume during the period from December 28, 2013 to January 22, 2019. This period is known as a period with rapid increasing of the Bitcoin closing prices, mainly in the second half of the year 2017. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we compute the Hurst coefficient to discover the close price dynamics and traded volume using a fractal point of view. We have discovered an anti-persistent behavior in the traded volume and random character of bitcoin closing prices. Second, we propose an analysis of the relationship between the close prices and traded volume. Our findings show how changes in the high-price period differ from changes in the low-price period. We also found that high prices caused investors to be afraid to trade due to possible rapid decrease in bitcoin closing prices.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN BUSINESS NETWORKS FROM THE BUILDING INDUSTRY 2019-11-27T16:12:21+01:00 Alina Czapla <p>Introduction: Both networking and knowledge management can give a company a competitive advantage. But the combination of these two approaches is particularly interesting. Knowledge sharing is crucial in the building industry, because it is changing all the time nowadays. The knowledge of new technologies and environmentally friendly <strong>building</strong> <strong>materials is especially important for companies from the construction industry. Also an average investor, who </strong>plans on building a house, has a very low level of knowledge about building materials and&nbsp; modern building technologies. So it is not surprising, that there are some business networks in building industry, which use knowledge sharing in their strategy.</p> <p>Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge sharing in business networks from the building industry. Our research question is: what forms of knowledge sharing take place in the construction industry and what is the scale of this phenomenon.</p> <p>Methods: The case study method was used to analyze one of the largest and fastest growing Polish business networks of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) -&nbsp; Grupa Polskie Składy Budowlane (PSB). The survey among the owners and managers was carried out, interviews, document studies and observations were used.</p> <p>Results: Both the sharing of date and a large number of educational activities were observed in the studied business network. The vast majority of network members are engaged in these actions. Knowledge sharing in the building industry is implemented not only in relation to network partners and their employees but also in relation to customers.</p> <p>Conclusions: A business network can use knowledge management to achieve its business goals. The educational aspects of this approach are especially interesting. The scale of this phenomenon in the building industry is much bigger than it might seem. The range of these educational actions can go beyond the formal boundaries of the network.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ENHANCING THE DESTINATION IMAGE THROUGH PROMOTING POPULAR RIVER CRUISE DESTINATIONS 2019-10-23T20:11:01+02:00 Maksym Dimitrov Mariya Zlatkova Stankova <p>The sector of cruise tourism is growing in both subdivisions: river and ocean cruises. The most popular river cruise destinations in Europe are connected with historical places around big rivers such as the Danube, Rhine, Volga and others. One cruise itinerary consists of several tourist destinations, well-known and unknown for the cruise tourist, and creates one tourist destination combined with different ports of call. The well-known ports of call such as Paris, Vienna, St. Petersburg are the main attraction for the tourists.</p> <p>Among them there are some ports of calls which the tourist is not familiar with before visiting them. River cruise tourists have the opportunity to discover smaller cities in the chosen country or visit a new country as a tourist destination. For the areas where tourism is in a very early developing stage it is crucial to create a unique destination image which could influence the future choice of the tourists and bring them back.</p> <p>The study focuses on the main objective of exploring the attitudes of tourists traveling on two European river cruise routes, their experience and satisfaction within the visited destinations. Тhe research has a scientifically applied character, outlining certain attitudes that would be of interest to the business operating on river cruise destinations. Research results show that popular cities are a pull factor for river cruise tourism. Integrating them into the tourism offer as part of the long-term tourism planning would bring benefits to the destination by contributing to the creation of a unique and attractive destination image and growing popularity.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MONETARY DISCRETION BY FISCAL MEANS: THE CASE OF BULGARIA 2019-11-27T16:12:58+01:00 Preslav Dimitrov Ivan Todorov Stoyan Tanchev Petar Yurukov <p>The specific design of the Bulgarian currency board arrangement (CBA), which provides an opportunity for the Bulgarian government to conduct discretionary monetary policy by changes in the fiscal reserve, was analyzed. The impact of government deposit fluctuations on the dynamics of reserve money and interbank interest rates was investigated. The hypotheses of an automatic adjustment mechanism and a liquidity effect under the Bulgarian currency board arrangement were tested. The methodology employed was a vector autoregression, which included the following variables: MB – monetary base; BP – the balance of payments; GD – government deposit on the balance sheet of the Issue Department of the Bulgarian National Bank; MRR – minimum required reserve ratio of commercial banks. The target variable was MB. Monthly data for the period of January 1998 - December 2018 were used. The study results did not provide evidence of a statistically significant impact of changes in government deposit on reserve money and interbank interest rates. The hypotheses for the existence of an automatic adjustment mechanism and a liquidity effect did not find an empirical confirmation.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors OPTIMIZATION OF THE LOGISTICS NETWORK OF THE SELECTED ONLINE STORE 2019-10-23T20:13:26+02:00 Mykhailo Dobroselskyi Radovan Madleňák <p>The Internet serves as the main infrastructure for global shopping. For this purpose, the construction of an e-commerce logistics network is the main aspect of a successful existence in the virtual environment.</p> <p>This paper analyses the logistics system of a company located in Ukraine. The core business of the company is selling diagnostic equipment for cars through an online store. The structure of the company consists of one warehouse and five branches. The company does not have its own fleet for the transportation of products from warehouse to branches or to end customers and it outsources the services of another logistics company.</p> <p>The main goal of the paper is to optimize the existing logistics system of the product flow between the warehouse, branches and the final buyers of the online store.</p> <p>At the end of the article, after optimizing the warehouse localization, we received a reduction in shipping costs by 23%. Also, an existing and optimized logistics network is compared in terms of speed and cost of transportation between warehouse, affiliates and end users.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DETERMINANTS AND DIRECTIONS OF THE TRANSITION FROM TRADITIONAL TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: THE BULGARIAN CASE 2019-10-23T20:18:26+02:00 Julia Doitchinova Albena Miteva Darina Zaimova <p>On the basis of a literature review, the directions for transition of agriculture from the productive to the post-productive model are presented. A methodological framework has been developed, including the directions of the transition and the indicators on which it can be assessed. On the basis of this implementation, the passage from quantity to production quality, to the sustainability of agriculture, to new business models based on multifunctionality are assessed. It turns out that the changes in Bulgarian agriculture cannot be assessed unambiguously. The transition to sustainability is accompanied by continued mechanization and digitization of technological processes. There is a simultaneous development of both the productive and the post-productive model of agriculture. Together with the increasing interest in organic production, the implementation of environmentally friendly practices and the implementation of ecosystem services, modernization based on computerization and chemisation continues.</p> <p>The results are part of scientific project DN 15/8 2017 Sustainable multifunctional rural areas: reconsidering agricultural models and systems with increased demands and limited resources funded by the Bulgarian research fund.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AND INNOVATIONS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN BULGARIA 2019-10-23T20:19:32+02:00 Julia Doitchinova Zornitsa Stoyanova Hristina Harizanova-Bartos <p>The LEADER approach has an important role for strengthening <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">and</span> the development of local communities and for stimulating innovations and innovative practices in rural areas.&nbsp; The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the LEADER approach as an innovative approach and on this basis to prepare general conclusions about the innovative development of rural areas in Bulgaria. The local active group (LAG) is interpreted as an innovative "coordinating" activity and it is the core of the innovation system that solves conflicts, and creates and implements local strategies for rural development. The LEADER and the Community – led local development approaches introduce innovative practices for Bulgarian conditions in order to improve local governance and facilitate innovations. The main contributions of the LEADER and the Community approaches are related to: the establishment of local active groups in different network structures of partnership; activating stakeholders, broadcasting leaders and improving coordination between them; establishing local expertise and administrative capacities; support for business organizations, local authorities and the non-governmental sector in the development and management of innovative projects. The factors that influence the success of the LEADER approach and its importance for rural development in each country differ in their administrative, socio-economic, historical and cultural contexts. Bulgarian LAGs continue to implement the Community – led local development approach (CLLDA) in the process of adapting to the specific conditions of rural areas.</p> <p>The results are part of scientific project DN 15/8 2017 Sustainable multifunctional rural areas: reconsidering agricultural models and systems with increased demands and limited resources funded by the Bulgarian research fund.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SKILLS FOR THE BANKING SECTOR. A PERSPECTIVE FROM ROMANIAN GRADUATE STUDENTS 2019-10-23T20:20:55+02:00 Ovidiu Folcut Victoria Folea <p>Due to the current nature of jobs and the labour market landscape, jobs themselves change much more rapidly today for many reasons, one of them being the increased digitization of life and the economy. We use digital technologies for social interactions and online transactions, but we increasingly use digital technologies at work as well. Universities prepare the next generation for the workforce and deliver graduates according to the needs of employers. However, in many cases, employers need to train or re-train their newly employed graduates according to the real and specific needs of the job. In some cases, this may be justified by the specific nature of the job. Here, we attempted to understand the mismatch between university specializations and the requirements of jobs in a certain field.</p> <p>The paper analyses the perception of students and graduates of the way in which university programmes help them become well-trained professionals that match job requirements in the field of economics and finance. Between March 2018 and March 2019, 500 surveys were distributed to students and graduates in the fields of economics, business administration, finance and banking, and 396 completed questionnaires were analysed. In the course of our research, we also interviewed employers in the banking sector to obtain their thoughts and opinions on the correspondence between jobs and university specializations and programmes.</p> <p>Based on our research, an increased collaboration between universities and employers would be beneficial. The involvement of students and graduates in collaborative projects between universities and employers and the direct participation of employers in delivering courses and seminars are some examples of implementing these ideas.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PERCEPTIONS AND INTENTIONS OF ADOPTING THE INTERNET OF THINGS BY GENERATION Z 2019-10-23T20:22:28+02:00 Silvana Costa Gonçalves Belem Barbosa Anabela Rocha <p>The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a new technological revolution expected to impact all aspects of our daily lives in the future. Generation Z is foreseen as playing a fundamental role in the adoption of this type of technology, namely because of their growing importance as a consumer segment, their global role in the society, and in particular their close relationship with technology. However, extant literature on the adoption of IoT disregarded this segment. This paper aims to fulfill this gap, by exploring their knowledge, perceptions, and intentions of adopting IoT. After considering the main contributions in the consumer behavior literature regarding IoT, a qualitative approach was adopted, and 7 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Portuguese consumers aged 18-22. Content analysis was performed following the recommendations by Bardin (1977). The results showed that although Generation Z is not familiar with the concept of the IoT, they expressed a strong desire to integrate IoT technology in their lives, being open to its adoption in all fields of application, including for personal use, at home, and for work. One of the conclusions is that in order to foster the IoT adoption by this Generation, the functional benefits (performance, price, comfort, and safety) should be emphasized, so that the main risks perceived are weakened, namely the financial, performance, and physical risks.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF INFRUSTRUCTURE ON THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF RUSSIAN REGIONS 2019-11-27T16:14:18+01:00 Rogneda Groznykh Elena Ignatieva Oleg Mariev Alla Serkova <p>Infrastructure is one of the main determinants of consistent and sustainable development in different countries and regions. Considering the Russian Federation, where there are 85 regions, not counting the federal cities, the problem of regional development and factors that can promote it, is currently of high importance. Different levels of regional development lead to higher economic differentiation between regions and cause serious damage to the Russian economy. Our main hypothesis suggests that a higher level of infrastructure development in a region positively affects economic development in the areas. Therefore, the main aim of our research is to estimate the impact of infrastructure on economic development in Russian regions using econometric analysis. In addition, cluster analysis was implemented to reveal the difference in infrastructural development levels in the regions. To provide a precise estimation, a database was constructed on Russian regions for the period of 2012 to 2016. The main method used in the research is econometric analysis and cluster analysis by using k-means method based on three main indicators: social, industrial and financial. The results of the analysis reveal 5 different clusters with highly differentiated levels of infrastructural development. Econometric analysis has shown that the most significant infrastructural factors are industrial factors and social factors. The results of the research could be taken into consideration as recommendations for development in order to improve government policy towards less developed Russian regions.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE IMPACT OF INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS: CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS 2019-11-27T16:13:47+01:00 Rogneda Groznykh Igor Drapkin Oleg Mariev <p>This research paper is devoted to analysis of various institutional factors as determinants of foreign direct investment (further – FDI) inflows to different countries. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of institutions on FDI inflows. The analysis is provided on a database of cross-country FDI inflows on 72 countries FDI-importers and 112 countries FDI-exporters in the period from 2001 to 2016. It is supposed in the paper that the impact of institutional factors might be different for the groups of developed and developing countries; since developed economies have higher institutional indicators, they tend to attract larger amounts of foreign direct investment compared to developing economies, where institutional development is at the lower level. The estimation is based on the gravity approach, which considers the positive effects of countries’ GDP and the negative effect of the distance between them. The main method used for the econometric estimation is the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) regression, which is considered to be one of the adequate methods for estimating such data. During the research the problems of zero-observations and correlation between institutional indicators are solved. The results have shown that higher quality of institutions tends to attract more foreign direct investment to a country. Thus, institutions in developed countries have positive and significant impact on FDI attraction. At the same time, the analysis of developing countries has shown that some institutions have less significant influence on the FDI inflows. Based on the results of the research, possible recommendations for government policy on institutional improvement can be suggested.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COOPERATION BETWEEN HUMAN AND AGENTS IN HOLONIC MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 2019-10-23T20:42:23+02:00 Patrik Grznár Martin Krajčovič Štefan Mozol Marek Schickerle Gabriela Gabajová Monika Bučková <p>The current development in production is directed towards a system called socio-cyber-physical, where humans, machine facilities, materials, technologies and the environment work together. Processes in companies are enrolling in a platform called Industry 4.0. Production is more similar to a living organism where the planned dynamic in the field of logistic and production elements of the system are exchange by emergent dynamically moving fully adaptable autonomous agents. Agents are plant facilities that have software implemented with decisions rules and are not control by human. These autonomous agents communicate and interact with each other in a protocol. In the factories of the future, presence of humans is also predicted and therefore the humanization of communication and interaction between human and agents of system must be considered. The human becomes a living agent who will communicate with others and collaborate to achieve goals. In individual workplaces, agents will serve and support humans in service, production, inspection, supply etc. but also a human will do that for&nbsp;agents. Although production will behave Emergent it is necessary that the activity of agents support the activities of humans in the workplace and that is not possible without communication. In this point there is a need for mastering the communication between the human and the agent and this can be done through Chatbot systems. This paper is aimed at designing a potential coordination system between humans and agents in factories of the future by using Chatbot systems.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COMPARISON OF THE CONDITIONS OF TAXATION ON LABOR IN HUNGARY AND THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2019-10-23T20:43:49+02:00 Norbert Gyurián Ádám Szobi Nikoleta Nagyová <p>Income taxes constitute an important source of revenue for public finances everywhere. Essentially, the incomes of natural and legal persons are taxed. The tax on income from dependent activity, i.e. tax on labor, is one of the most important sources of tax revenue. The amount of tax revenue depends on the activities of the natural person (employee) but also on the activities of the persons who are in the position of the employer. These persons in the position of employer can also be natural persons, but in the majority of cases, they are legal persons. The focus of the study is on incomes from labor in Hungary and in Slovakia from the perspective of regulation and economic conditions. The main objective of the study is to examine the legislation on the taxation of labor and study the tax wedges in the two selected states. The conducted research is based on secondary sources. The results are presented in part in the results and discussion section and also in conclusion of the study. Our results point out the fact that even neighboring countries can have several differences in taxation with regard to the studied tax. One reason for studying this fact is that a good number of people in the bordering regions might extend their activities into the territory of the other country as well.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INCOME TAXATION REGIMES FOR PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURS IN HUNGARY AND THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2019-10-23T20:44:57+02:00 Norbert Gyurián Ádám Szobi Angelika Kútna Dániel Halasi <p>Private entrepreneurs have an important role in national economies worldwide. Most of them operate and assume legal obligations as private persons. Consequently, they are taxed pursuant to the legal regulations pertaining to personal income taxation in the respective countries. Incomes tax from individual activities is a substantial source of proceeds for national budgets. When taxes are imposed on the individual activities of private persons, they act as both taxable entities and taxpayers at the same time. They are obliged to account for the payable amount of taxes with the state, and present all the associated, necessary records. Therefore, the persons in question are to shoulder considerable administrative burdens. This aspect surfaces in increasing costs, because in most cases they have to rely on external, professional services. Countries aim at shaping taxation environments that encourage taxable persons to account for and state their own taxes. In pursuing this goal, most states have adopted several methods that allow the simpler quantification of the amounts of taxes beyond the scope of complicated accounting systems. This paper has set the objective to look into these methods in Hungary and the Slovak Republic.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors WHY PEOPLE JOIN VIRTUAL WORLDS OF COMPUTER GAMES? QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AMONGST POLISH USERS 2019-10-23T20:46:00+02:00 Magdalena Hofman-Kohlmeyer <p>Introduction: When virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life or World of Warcraft) became immensely popular, with millions of active users around the world, real life companies started to utilize them for business purposes, such as testing new products or organizing various events. However, the activities of companies can only be successful if a sufficient number of players are engaged in virtual worlds.</p> <p>Objectives: The present paper is aimed to investigate individual players’ motives for joining virtual worlds of computer games.</p> <p>Methods: The author carried out 22 in-depth interviews amongst polish players (20 were finally accepted) of three virtual worlds: The Sims, Second Life and Euro Track Simulator 2. Interviews were carried out from August 21, 2018 to December 5, 2018.</p> <p>Results: Respondents most frequently mentioned consecutively: curiosity (caused by TV series, TV programme, newspaper or advertisement), interact with others, interest in the topic of a game, enjoyment from playing, opportunity to see or do things unattainable in real life, exploring the virtual world, spending free time. With reference to the gratification paradigm, individual motivations were divided into: experiential (16 motives), functional (6 motives), social (3 motives). From the perspective of marketing managers, understanding the motivations of players allows them to describe the target market of their promotional activities inside the game environment. For game developers, it can help attract new and maintain current users.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE MECHANISM OF ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT IN THE REGIONS OF KAZAKHSTAN TO ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 2019-10-23T20:47:06+02:00 Laura Igaliyeva Saule Yegemberdiyeva <p>This article describes the objectives and methods of ecological environment management and sustainable environmental management at the regional level and with the impact of economic instruments. The optimum solutions to environmental management problems with a view to preserving natural resources and the reduction of risk of harm to the ecological environment were examined. Based on the analysis of conceptual approaches to the formation of the economic mechanism for ensuring environmental safety, the fundamental principles of the formation of this mechanism in Kazakhstan have been determined. On the basis of scientific research, measures are proposed for the effective operation of the economic mechanism of environmental management in Kazakhstan, which ensures the competitiveness of national products in the domestic and foreign markets, overall economic stability and national welfare in general.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors HOTEL RESERVATIONS VIA ONLINE TRAVEL AGENCY BOOKING.COM. EU DIMENSIONS OF THE “BEST PRICE” CLAUSE 2019-10-23T20:48:16+02:00 Ivaylo Ivanov Irina Atanasova <p class="Style1"><span lang="EN-CA">The use of online reservation systems has become a must for hospitality businesses. This article is focused on the use of as an online search engine for accommodation in a family hotel in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria. The aim of the research is to analyze the behavior of people, using one of the best performing online travel agencies in the world for hotel room reservation. The article reveals interesting statistical facts about the nationality of the guests and how far ahead of time reservations are made. Data for the electronic device, which is used to make a reservation, is stated in the article. The “best price” clause of is taken into account, as it is being banned in some EU countries, but still influencing the decision making process of hotel customers. A brief outlook of the ‘’most favored nation’’ (“MFN”) clause, also known as ‘price parity’ or ‘best price’ clause (“BPC”) and its application in EU countries is included.</span></p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SMART CITY CONCEPT WITHIN SELECTED COUNTRIES 2019-10-23T20:50:09+02:00 Simona Jaculjaková Katarína Repková Štofková Dominik Laitkep <p>This manuscript deals with the issue of the Smart City concept in the capitals of selected European countries, which are the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, and Austria. This scientific manuscript defines technical terms such as Smart city and also the whole concept of the Smart City. An overview of Smart City services is also presented. The analysis of the current state of the article is focused on the Index Cities in Motion 2018 which evaluates the current development concept of a Smart City in selected major cities such as Vienna, Prague, and Bratislava. Based on the analysis, we wanted to verify whether the Slovak Republic is ranked in the first half of the surveyed countries within the Index Cities in Motion.This hypothesis has been confirmed.Within these selected capital cities, we focused on mobile applications, which are provided under the three chosen areas of the concept of a Smart City such as transportation services, environmental services, and real-time localization services. Subsequently, we found that most applications in the countries under review are implemented in the transport sector. Subsequently, we focused on the number of downloads and the cost of each app. We've also researched apps through Google Play.Based on a detailed analysis, we defined the advantages and disadvantages of the three most frequently used areas of the Smart City concept.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors FINANCE MANAGEMENT IN ARTS ORGANIZATIONS IN BULGARIA 2019-10-23T20:51:15+02:00 Vesela Kazashka <p>Arts organizations are a major factor in the Bulgarian economic. Good management of Art&nbsp; organizations&nbsp; is also associated with good financial management and control in order to achieve their &nbsp;goals and objectives. The delegated budgets, the small scale of most of the Arts organizations, are a prerequisite for saving money or imposing the appointment of a financial controller. The lack of such a specialist in turn leads to poor control, inefficient spending of funds, violations and failure to verify costs, which can sometimes lead to bankruptcy. The objective of the report is two-sided - on the one hand, preventing the repetition of mistakes perceived as unsuccessful practices and, on the other hand, emphasizing the place and role of controlling the financial execution of a project and its importance for optimizing the effectiveness of the implementation as well as in the overall activity of Art&nbsp; organizations.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors JUSTIFICATION OF SCENARIOS OF STATE REGULATORY POLICY OF UKRAINE 2019-10-23T20:52:30+02:00 Irina Kolupaieva Olena Shevchenko <p>The research is devoted to justifying regulatory policy scenarios. The base of the analysis is the built cognitive map that shows the interactions between factors, leverages and goals of regulatory policy. For the purpose of justifying the possible dynamics of factors in the future in every scenario, changes of the most negative and positive factors were investigated, according to which the possible forecast for them was proposed. In the process of investigation, the impact of negative factors on the regulatory policy goals, the combination of leverages that must be included for overcoming the negative impact of all these factors were analysed and justified. As a result of the research we have determined three scenarios: optimistic, pessimistic and most probable. For every scenario, a specific set of leverages was proposed.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DIFFERENCES IN ASSESSING SELLERS' BEHAVIOUR BY THE CUSTOMERS OF BABY BOOM, X, Y AND Z GENERATIONS 2019-10-24T10:44:39+02:00 Jana Kovaľová Zuzana Birknerová Miroslav Frankovský Eva Benková <p>The role of sellers is changing in a&nbsp;turbulent business environment and only the sellers who provide first class services and approach to them in a responsible way can survive among competitors. Customers perceive it as an added value and have a good feeling from buying. It is just sellers who are becoming the main factor that contributes to the competitiveness of a whole organization. The segmentation of customers into individual generations enables us to better understand their preferences and requirements, it is then possible to predict their tendencies in buying behaviour and thus increasing the success of sales. The main aim of the paper is to present the issue of different assessment of sellers’ behaviour by the customers of the Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z. In connection with these differences, the aim of the research is to identify generational differences in the assessment of manipulative, assertive, stressed and engaged behaviour of sellers, as well as to analyse the determinants that affect the buying behaviour of customers. The research was conducted using a questionnaire method and mathematical-statistical methods on a sample of 207 respondents. The research results confirm the existence of statistically significant differences in assessing the determinants of sellers’ behaviour from the perspective of individual customer generations.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES USING THE METHOD OF STANDARD VARIABLE 2019-11-27T16:14:53+01:00 Dominika Krasňanská Ľubica Hurbánková <p>The aim of this paper is to compare the European Union countries on the basis of selected socio-economic and demographic indicators for the year 2016. The following indicators are selected for analysis: gross domestic product per capita, government gross debt as a percentage of gross domestic product, inflation rate, unemployment rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate and crude divorce rate. The contributions of the paper are to order the countries on the basis of the above-mentioned indicators, from the best country to the worst country using one of the multidimensional comparison methods – the method of standard variable. The aim of this method is to replace a number of selected indicators with one final characteristic – an integral indicator. Since the used indicators do not have the same weights, calculations are used on data weighted by weights I (calculated using the coefficient of variation) and weights II (calculated on the basis of the correlation matrix). When evaluating the EU countries on the basis of the selected indicators using the method of standard variable; Luxembourg, Ireland, Denmark and France ranked first. Among the worst countries we include Greece, Hungary, Spain and Portugal.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ORGANIZATIONAL MATURITY MODELS - REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION 2019-10-23T20:55:42+02:00 Aneta Kucińska-Landwójtowicz <p>The continuous development of the organization and business excellence currently belongs to the most important challenges of modern management. It requires many activities aimed at the improvement of the efficiency of processes and the improvement of the product quality. This is accompanied by a wide range of performance evaluation and organizational maturity analysis in many aspects. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review protocol followed and the associated reasoning. The systematic review of the literature is carried out according to strictly defined four phases. The literature of the subject placed in the universal Thompson/Reuters Web of Science database was adopted as the object of exploration. The analysis of the most important articles, proceedings, books and reviews has been performed. The review covers the last 25 years. The systematic review reported in this paper was guided by the objective to classify existing organizational maturity models (OMM), in order of their application area and to indicate the latest research trends. The result of the conducted research is the classification of organizational maturity models including key categories. The main contribution of the paper is the subsequent grouping of these models into nine areas of application to allow further study and development of these. In addition, new maturity models were selected for specific areas of the organization's operations or related to new management concepts. The value of the article is a clear and detailed review of the models proposed in the literature, which may be useful for both researchers and practitioners. The main limitation is the analysis in the scope of topic organizational maturity models including only the Thompson/Reuters Web of Science. This is the first stage of literature review that are continued.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TAX LICENCE OF A LEGAL ENTITY – PROS AND CONS 2019-10-23T20:56:36+02:00 Angelika Kútna Imrich Antalík Norbert Gyurián Zoltán Šeben <p>In 2013, the Slovak Parliament adopted the Law on Amendments to the Law on Income Tax. One of the most significant changes was the introduction of the Tax License of a Legal Entity. On January 1<sup>st</sup>, 2018, a minimum corporate tax (the&nbsp;so-called tax license), which was introduced in 2014, was abolished. The main aim of this paper is the evaluation and quantification of the impact which the minimum corporate tax has on&nbsp;the amount of tax liability of a selected group of legal entities in the agricultural sector. The research had tried to find an answer if the tax license abolishment was more in the political interests or if it had some economic background. The main research questions are how has the corporate tax duty increased in the agricultural sector in the Slovak Republic after introducing the&nbsp;minimum corporate tax and how has the tax burden for agricultural holdings increased after introducing the tax license. The analysis presented in this paper confirms that the instrument of introducing the minimum tax is for loss-making sectors, such as the agricultural sector, undoubtedly unfair. On the other hand, the study has confirmed that the public which regularly pays the taxes, agrees with its introduction.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ATTITUDE OF SLOVAK SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES TOWARDS RISK MANAGEMENT – INVESTIGATION OF THE REGIONAL DIFFERENCES 2019-10-23T20:57:41+02:00 Matej Masár Mária Hudáková <p>Contemporary trends highlight the need for education in each enterprise. The current business environment is characterized by many changes such as increased customer expectations and high levels of competitiveness in the environment. World trends, shows, that managers and owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceived the need to take care of risk management in their enterprise. This issue has been analyzed and discussed for a long time. It is necessary to concentrate on this field mainly in the Slovak Republic. SMEs in Slovakia are very sensitive to changes in the environment.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate regional differences in the attitude of Slovak SMEs towards risk management, with special emphasis on the attitude towards significance of the education in the field of risk management based on empirical research, which was provided by authors in 2017. This paper will evaluate: the level of dependence between the selected Slovak regions and the created space for discussion about risks in SMEs, the level of dependence between selected Slovak regions and the created space for employee education in risk management in SMEs, and the level of dependence between selected Slovak regions and the required education possibilities in the field of risk management. It will use: association, the Pearson’s coefficient and the Tschuprov coefficient for evaluating the results.</p> <p>Overall results of the empirical research point towards the significance and importance of using risk management in SMEs. The results, shows, that there is a very large association between investigating dependence. Based on the results, it is necessary to improve the level of education in the field of risk management, which will be based on current entrepreneurial requirements.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE CURRENT STATE OF PROJECT RISK ASSESSMENT AND EDUCATION NEEDS IN PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT 2019-10-23T20:58:40+02:00 Matej Masár Mária Hudáková <p>Current trends show that education in the field of project risk management is a very actual topic. Long - term projects, which was realized in 2018, was mainly focused on R&amp;D across the world. Short - term projects, was focused on innovation and improve manufacturing processes. Many projects failed because project managers did not manage project risks. Project managers have less knowledge and skills on how to effectively manage project risks, especially risks in the planning phase of projects.</p> <p>The main aim of this article is to analyze the current state of usage project risk assessment across the world, based on own empirical research, which was provided, by authors in 2018 and 2019 (mainly level of usage project risk management methods, experience and level of education). The research focused on analyzing the current state of project risk assessment among continents. The authors focused on the average level of use qualitative and quantitative project risk analysis by project managers, level of project risk management experience by project managers and complexity of learning in using of qualitative and quantitative project risk management methods and tools.&nbsp; Some recommendation were established to educate project managers in the field of project risk management.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE SLOVAK CITIZEN’S AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE BENEFITS OF ROBOTIZATION 2019-10-23T21:17:08+02:00 Tomáš Mišík Jana Štofková <p>We live in a time which is determined by rapid technological development, increasing automation, creating electronic services and implementing robots. The current Fourth Industrial Revolution is not just about technology or business, it is also about society, the quality of life and the integration of new technologies where humans and robots interact. New technologies create space for job opportunities that will require specific kinds of skills. Today, computers and machines can do a high level of work involving routine and manual work, but they cannot replace some analytical, creative and, most importantly, social skills. An education and employment policy is needed to transform the trends and challenges of the digital economy. The aim of the contribution is point to the theoretical background of the digital transformation of society and define the level of robot skills acquisition. Moreover, it identifies the life situations and sectors where respondents from Slovakia would accept the presence of robots and the article compares data with a survey conducted by 168 students of Zilina university. The contribution also focuses attention on the approach to the relationship between human and the robot and the perceived benefits of using robots from the point of view of citizens.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FACEBOOK PROMOTING THE BRANDS OF SLOVAK WELLNESS HOTELS BASED ON THE DEA METHODOLOGY 2019-10-23T22:31:39+02:00 Dominika Moravcikova Anna Krizanova <p>This contribution presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Facebook social network promoting the brands of a number of selected Slovak wellness hotels based on the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology and its selected models.</p> <p>The research question is that hotel guests use the funpages of the Slovak wellness hotels on the Facebook social network to learn more about its services and also how the Slovak wellness hotels use their funpages to promote their brand and communicate with their consumers.</p> <p>During the four months in 2018 (September – December), data on input and output variables was collected, with data from photos, videos and links to "funpage" hotels on Facebook and output to "Likes" and "Comments". The measurement of the efficiency of these input and output variables in order to assess the effectiveness of 16 wellness hotel brands operating in the Slovak Republic was based on an input-oriented CCR DEA model with weight adjustment via the Assurance Region.</p> <p>The number of Likes and comments on the Facebook pages of the 16 Slovak wellness hotels suggests that hotel guests use Facebook to learn more about the services and events they provide. The DEA model is therefore an effective tool to help evaluate the effectiveness of a business in a hotel sector on a social network, such as Facebook, in promoting its brands, as it uses multiple variables and does not necessarily require an input-output relationship. The results of using this method confirmed the research question.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF THE BULGARIAN FORESTRY AND FOREST-BASED INDUSTRY: A DEA APPROACH 2019-10-23T21:19:56+02:00 Nikolay Neykov Emil Kitchoukov Petar Antov Viktor Savov <p>The economic efficiency of forestry has long been a leading issue in the sector's economic research. The wide variety of policies, goals and models in forest management makes researching the factors of economic efficiency a constantly relevant issue. Since 1978 Data Envelopment Models have provided a comprehensive approach without following the particular assumptions for production function of forests. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models are quite suitable to estimate the efficiency and determine the weaknesses of forests and forest-based industries with their current state and structural weaknesses. The current study estimates the relative efficiency of the Bulgarian forestry and forest-based industries comparing it to those in the EU. The methodology applied provides a specific approach for classifying the countries by the share of their sectoral GVA in comparison to the overall country GVA. The results confirm that the Bulgarian forestry and forest-based industries are efficient compared to most EU countries. The paper develops further the results that the efficiency varies based on the share of forestry and of forest-based industries in the country GVA. The results reveal that in countries where forestry is better involved than forest based industries, the efficiencies are higher. The study also suggests solutions for problems of small countries like Bulgaria in order to achieve better efficiency of their respective economic sectors.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ADMINISTRATIVE BARRIERS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATIONS IN HOUSING CONSTRUCTION: THE CASE OF ST. PETERSBURG 2019-10-23T21:21:16+02:00 Sergey Oparin Marina Yudenko Nadezhda Polovnikova Svetlana Nikolikhina <p>The purpose of the article is to draw attention to the importance of the issue related to administrative barriers in the field of housing construction, the redundancy of which leads to the rise of transaction costs and reducing the effectiveness of organizations. The estimate of the creation of formal rules in the context of social infrastructure in St. Petersburg is given. The conclusion is made about the direct impact of the effective standard on the effectiveness of the organization. An integral method for measuring the economic efficiency of the resources used is proposed, which improves the quality of the measurement and the evaluation of their effectiveness, taking into account the impact of transaction costs.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL INTO ECONOMIC CAPITAL THROUGH EDUCATION (BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND BULGARIA) 2019-10-23T21:22:27+02:00 Petar Lyudmilov Parvanov Nadezhda Emilova Petkova <p>This paper is an analysis of different types of capital as well as of the opportunity for capital to be transformed into various types. The basic sorts of capital and their theoretical conceptions are being viewed with an attempt to prove that every resource should be considered as capital as long as they bring benefits which can be regarded as economic ones. Education and knowledge are important factors for the process of observing and analyzing the transformation of human or social capital into economic capital. On the basis of statistic data from Eurostat it is shown in this paper that there is a direct dependency between education and the economic growth of a given country. The main objective of the paper is to present the theoretical opportunities for capital transformation and to give examples for the latter through data from Eurostat. Moreover, we accept the working hypothesis that capital should be related to the personality that it belongs; and that in its essence it is uniform and it takes different forms through transformation. For the writing of the text we have used comparative and theoretical methods, adaptive methodology, deductive and empirical method and the statistical analysis method. The main outcomes of our research are as follows: capital exists in various forms; it can be transformed and it should be defined as a resource that brings additional dividends; human capital, albeit personal. Through its social function it is transformed into economic one and is useful not only for the individual but for society as a whole; education is one of the fundamental ways for human and social capital accumulation. There is a direct correlation between education and economic growth. Moreover, on the basis of the examples from the data from the European Union, it is clear that the more educated young people there are in the real economy, the higher the economic development is.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FROM UNIVERSITIES OF RUSSIA AND SOUTH AFRICA 2019-10-23T21:23:57+02:00 Ivan Pivovarov Hendri Kroukamp Victoria Nekrasova <p><strong>:</strong> A career choice in the public sector might seem strange as more financially lucrative careers beckon in the private sector.&nbsp; Similarities and differences in the motivation of choosing and staying in the public sector between students currently enrolled in undergraduate studies towards a career in the public sector (referring to all spheres of government) in Russia and the Republic of South Africa are analyzed in this article. Through this process new knowledge is generated for public personnel managers in recruitment drives, promoting current and new employment opportunities possibilities are enhanced and ideas are generated for tertiary institutions for the development of curriculum to ensure that public servants will be able to address, through the attainment of the necessary skills, the changing circumstances within which public servants operate in the public sector. Recommendations in respect of further research possibilities are also explored</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY IN BULGARIA 2019-10-23T21:25:10+02:00 Radostina Popova <p>This paper presents an analysis of the innovation performance of furniture enterprises in Bulgaria for two periods – before the economic crisis and after it. It contains general characteristics of the Furniture industry (structure of the enterprises, different type of production, export and import) and the results of the surveys of the innovation activity for two 3 year periods. The results from the studies are of the periods: 2006-2008 (563 enterprises) and 2014-2016 (358 enterprises) and are based on officially used EU definitions and indicators (European Commission, OECD, Oslo Manual), which allows for comparability of results. The used indicators are: introduced product innovations, introduced process innovations, introduced organizational innovations, introduced marketing innovations, revenues and costs of innovation and financing of the innovation activities.</p> <p>The results of the comparative analyses of the innovation activity of the furniture enterprises in Bulgaria for the two periods under review showed an increase in: the innovation expenditures and revenues from innovative products, the process innovations -&nbsp; additional&nbsp; activities and the financing of innovation activities by the EU. It also showed a decrease in the number of furniture enterprises, product innovations, process innovations and organizational innovations.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors REDEFINING THE MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION IN THE ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 2019-10-23T21:26:37+02:00 Andy Pușcă Ionel Sergiu Pîrju <p>Education is the best investment in the future of a nation. This article reviews the Romanian educational system and offers insights into the issues surrounding the performance orientation of the universities in the context of recent transformations after the ingression in the European Union. Our intention through this article is to present solutions for the improvement of performance orientation in the Romanian educational system.&nbsp; We will analyze the situation of higher education in Romania as: regional performance of the universities, which is a direct result of national literacy rate, the enrolment rate of the youth, the governmental funds etc. The contemporary Romanian educational system is focused on the development of a performed management style in synergy with the European educational strategy. The article presents the issues related to the national higher education performance and its strategic role for enhancing the excellence of a sustainable economy. The prospects of the Romanian performance orientation are discussed from a synchronic point of view.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES 2019-10-23T21:28:03+02:00 Margarita Ruseva <p>Access to finance for the creative industries can be difficult, mainly due to the intangible nature of their assets and collateral, the limited scale of the market, the uncertainty of demand and the lack of expertise on the part of financial intermediaries, taking into account the specificities of the creative industry. Every organization should know the "life cycle of the project". It represents a sequence of phases (stages) in the development of the project from its beginning to its end. Splitting the phase design allows for better and more efficient implementation and management.</p> <p>The aim of this article is to analyze, through in-depth analysis, the difficulties associated with the development, implementation and management of projects by the creative industries. These gaps in the skills of art managers were found after a survey based on an in-depth interview in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. This article reflects the results of the empirical study. The survey was conducted among 105 organizations and their managers working in the field of creative and recreational industries and identified gaps in project management, resource management, people, and risk assessment. Risk management is an element of the financial management of any organization, including art organizations. Good risk management is a guarantee for success and the achievement of the goals of art organizations. The environment in which the art develops is dynamic, provocative, and it requires an up-to-date risk assessment, which in turn is a requirement for knowing the stages, methods and mechanisms of risk reduction to dimensions that will give reasonable assurance to the organization's art management that the goals will be achieved.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INFLUENCE OF A TURBULENT ENVIRONMENT ON THE MANAGING OF A MINING ENTERPRISE 2019-10-23T21:29:28+02:00 Aurelia Rybak <p>Motivation: It should be taken into consideration that classical planning methods that worked well at the end of the 20th century are often not effective in a turbulent environment. The article presents planning methods that can be applied in such conditions.</p> <p>Problem statement: The article presents methods of planning of the future in a variable environment. There are constant changes in the macro-environment of mining enterprises in Poland. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to create an appropriate plan for the company's core business i.e. extracting hard coal deposits.</p> <p>Approach and results: The scenario-based planning and SARIMA mathematical model and the forecasts for the demand for hard coal based on them have been presented. The scenarios are used to verify the potential company strategy.</p> <p>Conclusions: It should be noted that the strategy must be created in several variants which finally will enable the company to choose the one that will let it gain a competitive advantage. Only then will the mining company be able to stay ahead of its competitors. In order to allow decision-makers in companies to make the right decisions, appropriate methods and tools for managing the company should be used.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MARKET SUPPLY FORMATION IN THE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT SECTOR AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE PRESENT-DAY CONDITIONS IN RUSSIA 2019-10-23T21:55:16+02:00 Larisa Selyutina Natalia Vasileva Tatyana Maleeva Natalya Frolova <p>It is necessary to understand the housing market situation for selecting strategic measures that are able to ensure the balanced state of market supply and demand. This task is very relevant in the field of housing stock development and reconstruction in Russia. The up-to-date aspect of this issue has been investigated in this paper, and it is marked by the particular characteristics of intercommunication of the processes of supply generation for the purpose of satisfaction of demands for reconstruction and building activities projects in the housing sector and investment supply introduced into the investment market. This paper directs attention to the necessity of expanding the forms of housing needs satisfaction in order to increase housing affordability. This research is of practical importance and is intended to improve the performance of the modern housing reproduction market in Russia owing to the further development of the market mechanisms and tools, which ensure the reliability of housing development and housing stock reconstruction investments in line with people's investment and consumer demands</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE ANALYSIS OF RECYCLING INDUSTRY IN THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT 2019-10-23T21:56:42+02:00 Elena Silova Viktor Barkhatov <p>This article concentrates on the analysis of the recycling industry in Ural Federal District. Nowadays the problem of development of this industry is extremely important due to the need of real transition to long-term sustainable development. It is necessary to understand what enterprises have presented the industry and what problems they face now for further institutional design of ecologically sustainable development of industrial regions. These regions have serious ecological problems which need a strategy to solve them. In this article, the financial condition of Ural enterprises is analyzed and the analysis of level of market concentration and the interrelation between concentration level in industry and the financial condition of the companies is revealed. The financial analysis, analysis of concentration and statistical methods (correlation analysis) are used in this research. The information base of the research is the database FIRA PRO on the enterprises which contain such indicators such as sales revenue, net profit, number of employees, return on equity and others. The study shows that the recycling industry is characterized by rather low financial indicators. The prevailing kind of activity is processing of metals scrap. Collecting and processing of other types of resources are poorly developed. The market is characterized by moderate concentration, its level affects negatively on financial indicators of industry. Within regional economic policy it is necessary to provide measures for the stimulation of this industry in the Ural regions to develop competition in the industry.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors NEW APPROACHES OF REGIONAL POLICY AS A SUPPORTING FACTOR OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION 2019-10-23T21:58:00+02:00 Viktor Šoltés Katarína Repková Štofková Filip Lenko <p>Increasing economic growth and employment, as well as improving the quality of life of the population, is one of the priorities of each country. One of the options to achieve these goals is to balance regional disparities. In the current globalization process, balancing regional disparities is all the more important. The European Union, as one of the most important communities of states, seeks to reduce regional disparities within the Community through a cohesion policy. The Slovak Republic, as one of the member states of the European Union, seeks to support the least developed regions through incentives and grants. Because of this, it analyzes the situation in the regions, identifies the least developed regions and takes measures to support them. This article deals with the socio-economic analysis of the least developed regions and analyzes the measures that are taken to support them. The results of the article can be used by public authorities when planning other activities that are expected to have a positive impact on regional development.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors EXPERT SYSTEM OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEES 2019-10-23T21:59:35+02:00 Ľubomír Šooš <p>The monitoring of performance and positive motivation of employees has great influence on increasing the performance of institutions or workplaces. This applies to private, public and state institutions alike. One such institution is a public university. However, all available and so far developed systems make possible only partial employee evaluations. To our knowledge, no complex and objective individual assessment system is as yet available.</p> <p>This was the main reason for which we decided to elaborate a completely new individual assessment system that makes possible the evaluation of employees of a given institution complexly or in selected categories pursuant to selected areas. The basis of the system is an original formula for the total calculation of an individual’s performance.</p> <p>The individual’s results in the various areas are related to the average value achieved in the given area in the compared set, multiplied by the respective weighting coefficient of the area.</p> <p>The goal of the presented paper is the introduction, development, description and presentation of a new and original system which will allow for the complex assessment of a chosen employee or group, and which has been applied at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava in&nbsp;Bratislava, (STU BA).</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE CHANGE FROM A COMMAND-TO A MARKET BANKING SYSTEM IN THE CASES OF SELECT GROUPS OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 2019-10-23T22:02:54+02:00 Elena Stavrova <p>In this article, the general stages of the banking sector’s transition to a free market are examined in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the effects of the last crisis on the financial and economic system of these countries. The process of this change is different and is important for their integration into the common European banking market, as well as their influence on the development of the economies of these countries as a whole. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to compare the processes of change in organizational structure and the difficulty of integrating these banking sectors with the banking sectors of Western European countries. The focus is also on assessing the impact of the global financial and economic crisis on their sustainable development. The databases of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have been used to establish a common pattern in some sectors - the growth of non-performing loans during the crisis, it also implies a concerted effort to overcome this important indicator of their sustainability and behavior.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors AGRICULTURE AS A POSSIBLE WAY FOR SUSTAINABLE DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT IN BULGARIA 2019-10-23T22:04:48+02:00 Zornitsa Stoyanova Hristina Harizanova-Bartos <p>Agriculture is an important sector of Bulgarian economy and is a trigger for the development of rural areas. The analysis of district development takes into account the importance of European cohesion policy and national support for the achievement of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The main aim of this study is to reveal the place and the role of Bulgarian agriculture in rural development. Based on the clusterization on a district level we defined 3 clusters. The first one – “economically poor - ecologically stable” has the highest probability for agricultural development and ability to transform into a well-developed agrarian cluster and to develop environmentally friendly activities and tourism. The second cluster –” economic developed” has potential for good prospects for the realization of the population, development of the diverse sectors, access to education and a high standard of living. The third cluster called “transitional - towards good economic development and ecologically unstable” has potential for the development of activities, including agrarian and use of new technologies to contribute to GDP per capita growth. The given policy recommendations are directed into the development of the three clusters. In the first cluster, policy makers should direct efforts to overcome the economic problems by transformation into a well-developed agrarian cluster. Cluster 2 is well developed and the policy should be directed at increasing the economic capacity of the studied areas. Cluster 3 is a transitional one and there the policy makers should try to develop a multifunctional way of transformation to sustainable territory for living.</p> <p>The results are part of the scientific project DN 15/8 2017 Sustainable multifunctional rural areas: reconsidering agricultural models and systems with increased demands and limited resources funded by the Bulgarian research fund.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ALGERIA 2019-10-23T22:06:50+02:00 Mohammed Touitou Yacine Laib Ahmed Boudeghdegh <p>The transmission of changes in the exchange rate to macroeconomic performance has led to debates about their impact, particularly on growth economic. Many economists consider the exchange rate as a transmission channel of economic policy for open economies. This article focuses to determining empirically the impact of the exchange rate on economic growth. For this, we will adopt an approach in terms of the vector autoregressive model (VAR) with four variables namely, the real effective exchange rate, economic growth, financial development with credit indicators and finally the money supply. The empirical results allow us to confirm our theoretical expectations that decline in the real effective exchange rate of the dinar increases the growth economy through public spending for consumption and is stimulated by oil taxation.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND IN CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSESMENT 2019-11-27T16:15:22+01:00 Viera Valjaskova Pavol Kral <p>In order to maintain or increase market share, every company tries to use the most optimal combination of marketing communication tools or marketing mix tools. There are a large number of products placed on the market from a large number of companies that need to distinguish one another from competing companies. The most important tool to differentiate from competitors is the brand of products. The aim of each company is to ensure that their product brand is brought to the attention of customers and that customers associate especially positive associations with its brand(s). We are of the opinion that if the first and then repeated purchase of customers of the same product of a given brand confirms that the product meets the required characteristics and quality they expect from the product, customers will not doubt the quality of the products sold under the brand and will regard it as quality. For this reason, the aim of the paper was to confirm the importance of the brand in consumer buying decisions and to find out whether consumers really perceive the brand as a guarantee of product quality. To meet the aim of the paper, we conducted a questionnaire survey, which confirmed the importance of the brand in consumer purchasing decisions and the perception of the brand as a guarantee of product quality. We also confirmed a statistically significant dependence between brand perception as a guarantee of product quality and the age of respondents, confirming the importance of demographic characteristics in the implementation of company marketing activities.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors IMPACT OF OUTSOURCING OF HUMAN RESOURCES ON TEAM PERFORMANCE IN A POLISH MINING COMPANY 2019-10-23T22:11:53+02:00 Ewelina Włodarczyk <p>Motivation: In recent years outsourcing of a variety of different activities has been more commonly observed in the coal mining industry. It is connected with employing workers through external companies. These practices are not necessarily perceived as good ones by employees.</p> <p>Approach and results: This article aims to present how workers perceive these practices. Therefore, two surveys have been conducted. The first, of outsourcing underground work to third-party vendors, was carried out in a group of randomly chosen underground workers of a mining company (PGG Sp. z o.o.). The other survey, also of outsourcing underground work to third-party vendors, was carried out in a group of workers of a third-party vendor working for PGG Sp. z o.o.</p> <p>Conclusions: Analysing the results from the surveys allowed for a better understanding of the reasons for the disapproval of outsourcing underground work. This in turn may be used for better human resource management in coal companies including in particular planning an incentive based pay systems</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STUDY OF THE ORGANISATIONAL SCHEME IN A COAL COMPANY 2019-10-23T22:12:59+02:00 Ewelina Włodarczyk Aurelia Rybak <p>Motivation: One of the most important elements in each organization is its organizational structure, which will undoubtedly largely influence the way the company is managed. There are many types of organizational structures that are subject to continuous transformation due to economic development and progressive globalization. As a result, classical organizational structures are less and less present, while indirect structures are more and more often appearing. Moreover, in order for modern enterprises to compete effectively in the market, they must reach for modern management concepts, and thus their organizational structure should be flexible. Undoubtedly, one of the main problems of each company is the proper organization of logistic activities that would be compatible with the company's goals. Therefore, when treating logistics as one of the functions of an enterprise, internal units that perform logistical tasks should be incorporated into the company's organizational structure.</p> <p>Approach and results: The purpose of this article is, then, to show how logistics has been organized and integrated into the organizational structure in one of the most important coal companies in Poland. In order to achieve such a goal, JSW SA has been analysed in terms of the solutions applied for the last few years in the field of organization of the company, including in particular the position of logistics in its organizational structure.</p> <p>Material and methods: The material of the paper has been taken from the review of online resources. The method of theoretical analysis has been used in the article.</p> <p>Conclusions: In the analysed mining company, the impact of logistics development on the management of the company, i.e. centralization of logistics, was also noticed. Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa selected in its organisational structure a separate unit – Material Logistics Facility, which was later transferred into the Production Support Facility.&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CONTAINING FACTORS OF THE RUSSIAN DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION AT THE TRANSIT STAGE FROM THE FORMATION OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY TO ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL TRENDS 2019-10-23T22:14:25+02:00 Elena Zolochevskaya Tatyana Cherkasova Valeriya Arsenieva Larisa Lozovova <p>The article reveals the concepts of innovative development and digital economy and defines their categorical correlation. The main modern trends in the development of the world economy in the context of globalization are highlighted, which implies that the digital transformation of national economies is becoming a key factor for sustainable economic growth, allowing to ensure strong competitive positions in the global space. Expert assessments of cross-country ratings in terms of the global competitiveness and innovativeness of the national economy demonstrate that the leading role in the development of the world economy belongs to the developed and rapidly developing countries at the top of these ratings. However, the leading positions some countries in the ratings are not the result of simple evolution of economic development, but a purposeful strategy of innovative development implemented through a set of public policy measures. The analysis of the state innovation policy of the USA, EU countries, Sweden and Norway, which occupy leading positions in the Digital Economy and Society Index (I-DESI) rating, made it possible to identify the main directions of economic growth that are important to consider in the Russian state policy of digitalization. As part of the study of the current state of the Russian digital transformation, the achieved success is highlighted and the constraints are identified, the elimination of which will determine the success of the development of digital technologies and their implementation in government bodies, public organizations and business structures. The successful result of Russian digitalization is the adoption of a strategic document (National Program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation"), which defines the goals and institutional conditions for its implementation for all subjects of the national economy. Critical analysis of national programs helped to highlight some of the contained flaws, including the lack of: - economic objectives that concern system development of national industry 4.0 and the withdrawal of Russian digital technologies on global markets;- the indicative indicators of the pace of development of e-Commerce, the share of high-tech jobs in the total employment structure, growth of high-tech exports, and others; incentive mechanism for businesses to transition on the numbers; - ways to increase investment in research and development. In addition, the need for its adjustment is due to the selected seven limiting factors of Russian digitalization, which demonstrate the low efficiency of the national program in the transition from the stage of formation to the stage of development of the digital economy in Russia.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT THROUGH INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE 2019-10-26T16:35:18+02:00 Vyara Kyurova Teodora Kiryakova-Dineva <p>In the contexts of global economy and the increasing necessity for sustainable development of the business connections all over the world, the relations between the partners often involves not only the foreign language communication but also the dialogue between their cultures. International economic activity takes place in a set of business environments (business arrangements, timelines, quality output, sales, cash flows) which are also largely determined by additional cultural business conditions (culture as communication, attitude towards power, organizational hierarchy, interpersonal relations, etc.). In this sense, intercultural dialogue is a particularly important tool for achieving excellence and sustainable business relations between economic partners from different countries.</p> <p>In this paper, we suggest that intercultural dialogue in the international business environment is an indispensable tool for achieving economic effectiveness and goals, and can be assessed on the same scale as business performance. In order to identify the need of awareness-raising concerning the importance of intercultural dialogue as a business environment facilitator, a survey regarding the sewing industry in southwestern Bulgaria was conducted. The survey involved 16 small enterprises (participating with professionals from four different positions) working with firms from Greece. The evaluation of the business relations was actualized at two levels: the level of assessing the ability of professional communication and the level of assessing the ability of intercultural dialogue. Following the results obtained, the authors suggest a more active inclusion of intercultural dialogue in business practices and in negotiation. This recommendation fully corresponds to the Global goals of sustainable development because it contributes to the improvement of global partnership.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A PSYCHOMETRIC SCALE TO MEASURE ACADEMIC ENGAGEMENT 2019-10-23T22:34:16+02:00 Liliya Babakova <p>This study looks at the phenomenon of engagement at university. Here are described the initial procedures for the standardization and validation of the Schoolwork Engagement Inventory that measures energy, dedication and learning in terms of academic activity and work. To assess the validity and reliability of the scale among students, an exploratory factor analysis and structural modeling was used. A total of 152 first year students from two universities participated in the completion of this scale. The results show that the two-factor solution has the highest reliability. In terms of constructive validity, it was found that academic stressors correlated negatively with both scales of engagement, and the scale of resilience was positively linked to the engagement scale. There were no gender differences.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE TESI PROJECT AS ONE OF THE WAYS TO PREVENT SOCIAL ISOLATION OF PEOPLE WITH VERBAL COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 2019-11-27T16:15:54+01:00 Mirosław Babiarz <p>The content of this article concerns an important issue, which is the search for optimal educational solutions for children with communication disorders. The article presents the whole idea and main goals of the TESI project, that is an Adaptive Personalized System for Creating Expression Tools in Social Inclusion of Learners with Verbal Communication Disabilities, which focuses on social integration of people with verbal communication disorders that are at risk of social isolation. It is dedicated to the conceptualization and development of social competence related to personal, social and professional development of people with verbal communication disorders through the creation of an adaptive, affordable and easy-to-use software solution that will enrich their personal expression opportunities. The article presents the main goals of the TESI project, among which the most significant one is to ensure the ability to express oneself fully.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RICH ЕDUCATIONAL VIDEO MAZES AS A VISUAL ENVIRONMENT FOR GAME-BASED LEARNING 2019-10-23T22:36:20+02:00 Boyan Bontchev <p>Thanks to their impressive interactive abilities, video games are applied for decades as an engaging means for effective and efficient game-based learning. This paper presents the vision of applying rich educational video mazes as a visual environment for game-based learning. It defines a rich educational maze as a 3D maze video game providing rich didactic multimedia content presented within the maze nodes not only on learning boards but as well within puzzle games of various types. The game designer can embed the puzzle games into each one of the maze rooms and provide learning content personalized upon various characteristics of the player (the learner). In addition, such an educational maze is supposed to provide a rich gaming and learning experience thanks to including intelligent virtual players and applying a dynamic, player-centric adaptation of the difficulty of learning tasks and of the audio-visual properties of the game environment. This paper outlines the essence of a rich educational video maze games including its concept, genre, target audience, look and feel, game interface and artificial intelligence, with a special focus on the mission, challenges, and objectives of the game. As well, it provides some results from an online survey about the usability of such educational video mazes from the student point of view.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TEACHER TRAINEES’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SELECTED WEB-BASED APPLICATIONS IN TEACHER TRAINING 2019-10-23T22:38:32+02:00 Beáta Brestenská Zoltán Fehér Ladislav Jaruska György Juhász Andrea Puskás Katarína Szarka <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes of teacher trainees towards web-based applications which can be used in education. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted at the J. Selye University, based on the data of 397 questionnaires. Based on the frequency analysis of the answers, we can see that the trainees clearly appreciate the applicability of the presented web-applications, and they consider them interesting and effective in terms of learning. This fact is also supported by open questions about advantages and disadvantages, in the answers the methodological aspects of web applications are mostly highlighted. &nbsp;Based on pairwise comparisons of the factors we found that the applicability of web applications received a significantly higher evaluation than the others with the exception of efficiency. The students' opinion confirmed that the selected web applications are applicable in education, in general, but some of the students are not convinced that they will use them in their own pedagogical practice. The comparison of distributions of several related samples using a non-parametric Friedman-test, resulted in the rejection of the null hypothesis that the variables are from the same distribution. Based on pairwise comparisons using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, the applicability of web-applications received a significantly higher evaluation than the others, with the exception of efficiency.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ASSESSMENT OF THE LOCAL STATE ADMINISTRATION PREPAREDNESS LEVEL ON THE SOLUTION OF CRISIS EVENTS 2019-10-23T22:39:07+02:00 Daniel Brezina Michal Titko <p>The preparedness of the state and local administration to deal with different crisis events is a prerequisite for a functioning crisis management system in each country. However, the level of preparedness varies across the state from region to region, which can be caused by various factors. In recent years, in addition to the well-prepared crisis management system, the development of a society that is resilient to crisis events and increasingly engaged into the prevention and crisis events solution, has become an important objective of crisis management institutions worldwide. These efforts are carried out mostly at the local level. The aim of the article is therefore to investigate first and foremost the preparedness of the local government to deal with crisis events and consequently its ability to integrate community into this process. Based on the analysis of the crisis management system of the district Čadca, Slovakia, the problems, challenges as well as positive trends within the preparation processes and community integration are identified and discussed.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STREET SPACE FROM THE VIEW OF HUMAN INTERACTION 2019-10-23T22:40:40+02:00 Kristián Čulík Alica Kalašová Zuzana Otahálová <p>The dramatic increase in automobile transport over the last few decades has often led to the degradation of a basic element of the urban space – streets, the essential part of every urban area – to simple transport corridors. Life in the street is a dramatic stage on which we all are participating actors. The meaning of streets goes beyond the fact that they lead somewhere else and thus hold the city together, but the streetscape has a meaning in and of itself – we are out in the street because we want to be there. Like other components of the urban space, streets have a spatial dimension but, perhaps uniquely, also have their temporal element. In my contribution I would like to characterize a street in a town and its role in the modern way of life. Streets and public spaces are important elements that make up a city. The rapid increase of number of vehicles brought changes in the character and function of the street space. The streets were perceived primarily as a space reserved for transport, to the detriment of its residential, social and aesthetic function. Vehicles in motion and mainly parked cars gradually occupied a larger part of public areas and they do not allow other activities.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors NURSING AND GENERAL MEDICAL STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH THEIR MEDICAL TRAINING 2019-10-23T22:41:56+02:00 Liana Dehelean Ana Maria Romosan Radu Stefan Romosan Ion Papava Petru Papazian Mircea Babaita <p>Background: Medical education aims to ensure objective knowledge and fine skills in students. In this respect useful data may come from students’ perceived satisfaction with their training.</p> <p>Purpose of the study: To compare general nursing and medical students’ satisfaction with their training.</p> <p>Methods: Nursing and medical students were asked to rate their satisfaction with the medical training and express preferences regarding their intended future career.</p> <p>Results: No differences were found between the two samples regarding satisfaction with lectures. Nursing students were more satisfied with the teaching staff and relied exclusively on professor provided information, while medical students attended more optional lectures and case presentations. They were also more involved in research and conference participation. Students’ intentions about future practice (hospital / ambulatory) and emigration were similar in both samples.</p> <p>Conclusions: Less satisfied by the teaching staff, medical students appear to be more involved in their theoretical and practical training. Both nurses (48.6%) and medical students (53.3%) consider leaving the country after graduating.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE CULTURAL FACTORS IN INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN THE MODERN WORLD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC GROUPS) 2019-10-24T14:12:21+02:00 Anastasia Valiyevna Duminskaya Nikita Nikolayevich Yakovlev Denis Aleksandrovich Lesnyansky <p>The problem of intergroup relations becomes very important nowadays. The cultural interactions of ethnic and religious groups are influenced by the processes of globalization and migration. Considering this problem philosophically is connected with the question of how a person determines his cultural identity. There is an opinion that the world develops on the basis of contradictions. However, globalization, along with positive functions, can generate new social conflicts and aggravate old ones. Cultural conflict as a type of social interaction can perform both positive and negative functions. Relations between religious groups deserve special attention. This type of intergroup relations is often characterized with conflicts. Many local religious conflicts have political reasons. A conflict may also arise between the state and a religious group. More than that, many new religious movements (NRMs) appear, and there is an open confrontation between the traditional religious confessions and the NRMs. The ethnic aspect of intergroup relations is also very topical. In this regard, the following paradox can be noted: the weakening of the ethnic properties of culture occurs simultaneously with the strengthening of ethnic self-consciousness. The number of ethnic groups, religions, and worldviews is rapidly increasing, and there is a transition from a homogeneous population to a pluralistic society. It can be concluded that the philosophical understanding of the processes of interaction between ethnic and religious groups is largely connected with the phenomenon of cultural self-identification. The way an individual identifies himself with this or that culture is determined by the context of intercultural interaction carried out between individuals. Depending on the situation of interindividual interaction, one or another person’s knowledge about him- or herself is actualized.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors HIPPOTHERAPY AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF IMPROVING THE PRAXIS FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE DISORDERS 2019-11-07T09:44:44+01:00 Diyana Georgieva Veselina Ivanova <p>In recent years hippotherapy has emerged as one of the most commonly used alternative methods for the development of praxis functions in children with multiple disorders. The research focus is on the study of basic parameters of motor function in children with multiple disorders and the assessment of the horseback riding effects on the development of praxis of individuals in the category observed. A research battery consisting of three standardized tests: the Single-Leg Balance Test, a test and a scale for assignment the posture during a ride (The Posture Assessment Bertotti Scale) and a Test for the Estimation of Horse-riding Dependence on Danzinger, covering three application stages: diagnostic, intermediate, and control. A Student’s one-sample T-test was used to process the results obtained. Participants in the experimental group, aged between 7 and 15, showed results which are undoubtedly evidence of improvement in their praxis functions.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PARAMETERS OF THE CONFLICTING COMPETENCY OF THE STUDENTS – FUTURE TEACHERS IN TECHNOLOGIES AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2019-10-24T14:17:32+02:00 Sladuna Georgieva Diana Mitova Sashko Plachkov Lyubima Zoneva <p>The development of social competencies is of huge importance for young people of the 21st century. The contemporary, dynamic world requires skills for effective communication and dialogic behavior, quick adaptation, decision – making and high conflict avoidance culture.</p> <p>The object of the research are the possibilities of forming social competencies, in particular, the ability of conflict avoidance in the development of educational technological processes. The goal is to study the parameters of conflict culture in future teachers in technological education. In the context of the current research, the social competence is studied as a means of problem solving, conflict avoidance, empathy display, assertiveness, the willingness of being constructive, and socially responsible dialogic behavior. The results of the implemented empiric study of the social competency “conflict avoidance“ are displayed as well.</p> <p>In the conducted empirical study with pedagogics students, the development dynamics of the social competency “conflict avoidance” is followed, using the TKI: Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. The conclusions made refer to the pedagogical effectiveness of the project based method for the formation of conflict-avoidance culture.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CHARACTERISTICS, DESCRIPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION'S SAFETY CULTURE SUBSECTORS 2019-10-24T14:18:33+02:00 Martin Halaj Martin Boroš Richard Jankura <p>The safety of the organization is influenced by various factors. In order to increase the level of safety, it is necessary to focus on these factors and to influence them the right way in order to enhance their level. Regarding the safety, safety culture is one of the endogenous factors of organizations.</p> <p>Safety culture issues have not been given much attention so far, although a safety culture can play an important role at a complex level of safety for the organization. In order to increase the level of safety culture, it is required to assess its current state of play. The process of assessing the organization's safety culture is dealt with by one of the institutional grant projects at UNIZA's Faculty of Security Engineering.</p> <p>The elaborated article focuses on the first part of this process, which is the identification of the safety culture sub-sectors and safety culture indicators. Safety culture indicators serve for evaluation of identified sub-sectors, the values of which will be further used to assess the complex level of the safety culture.</p> <p>The article identified 6 safety culture sub-sectors and twenty safety indicators. The individual indicators were later allocated to the corresponding subsectors. In addition, the relevance of each subsystem, which can help to better assess the safety culture, has been celebrated.</p> <p>The methods of analysis and description, as well as the explanation methods, were used to process the article. The results of this article are useful to the professional public, the security science students, as they extend the theoretical foundation of organization security. The results of the article can also be used by any organization looking at the possibilities of analysing its safety.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ENGLISH PERFECT IN COGNITION OF SLOVAK ISCED3 LEARNERS OF ENGLISH – PRELIMINARY EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE 2019-10-24T14:19:32+02:00 Tomáš Hlava <p>In English language instruction in Slovakia, a strong preference for declarative knowledge at the expense of procedural knowledge development has been reported over the last two decades. However, the cognitive aspects of language attainment predict no impact of instructional efforts, since mental representations of language to be attained are told to be supported by different cognitive systems than associative learning develops. Language variation materializes differences among languages based on differences in digitalizing the experience and thus understanding the world. For Slovak learners, the English present perfect is one such anomaly in categorization. This paper aims to answer what the specific interactions between past simple and present perfect are and how the predicted cognitive aspects of language attainment influence the use of different types of knowledge. A proficiency test focusing on declarative knowledge and language use without context and in context was distributed to 600 Slovak learners of English at the ISCED3a level. In Past simple conditions, students proved highly proficiency in all 3 types of tasks. In present perfect conditions, declarative knowledge strongly dominated over language use in context. In Present perfect conditions, substitutions by past simple were significantly more frequent than substitutions of present perfect by past simple. Cognitive funneling was recognized as a process inhibiting fast proceduralization of the English present perfect compared to fast and reliable proceduralization of the past simple.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SELF-CONCEPT OF GIFTED PUPILS 2019-10-24T14:20:44+02:00 Dominika Hosova Jana Duchovicova <p>The self-concept is the utmost frequently studied area of gifted pupils. The emotional and social issues of highly gifted pupils often stem from inadequate self-concept. The structure of self-concept is being formed by traditional variables such as age, gender and culture. The centers of our focus are gifted pupils and differences in self-concept between gifted boys and gifted girls. The self-concept model created by Marsh and Shavelson in 1985 has a hierarchic structure. The highest level of the self-concept is known as the general self-concept. It is divided into academic self-concept and non-academic self-concept.&nbsp;The Self-description Questionnaire - short form (SDQ-II-S) was the research tool used to measure pupil‘s self-concept. The grades in math and their mother tongue language (Slovak) as well as their GPA (Grade Point Average) were examined and compared. The research sample consisted of 56 gifted pupils at secondary school. In order to better understand the academic self-concept, we also examined the preferences of inner motivation for learning. The biggest motivator that prevailed in the group of boys was positive social motivation, but in the group of girls it was the feeling of good work done. The most significant difference we have remarked was in the area of verbal academic self-concept. The girls had an average score of 23.44 while the boys only 13.94. The development of self-concept and the possibilities of its improvement are important, because self-concept affects school performance and the overall behavior of pupils.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE SHAKESPEARES OF JOZEF CILLER, STAGE DESIGNER 2019-10-26T16:30:35+02:00 Dagmar Inštitorisová <p>The study The Shakespeares of Jozef Ciller tackles the Renaissance manner of the expression in the topic defined by its title using historical and comparative analyses. The author of the study analysed the way the scenographer projected general attributes of the European Renaissance (visual art, architecture) into specific theatre productions based on the remaining archive material (stage designs, production photographs, video recordings, production reviews and similar) and personal communication with Jozef Ciller. The analyses also contain the identification of the transfer of the architecture and the scenography of the Elizabethan theatre Renaissance. Another line thanks to which the scenography for Shakespeare has been traced is the analyses of the Renaissance elements according to the location of the scenography – whether it was aiming for interior or exterior space. The scenography of Jozef Ciller elaborates on characteristics of renaissance exterior and interior architecture or creates, by its means, a new theatrical reality.&nbsp; Even the original dramatic reality often works with motives of plays in the renaissance Elizabethan style: the space of the stage and the auditorium is united through an active display for the actors and their presentation. Such approach is typical for Ciller’s scenography in general, not just for Shakespeare’s plays. The result of the study is the that Ciller uses Renaissance (theatrical and nontheatrical) elements as motives while retaining the awareness of the Renaissance spirit and greatness of human beings.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TEACHERS’ SATISFACTION WITH THEIR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT 2019-10-24T14:27:29+02:00 Veselina Ivanova Eleonora Mileva <p>The purpose of the study was to examine teachers’ satisfaction with their professional activities. 272 teachers who have classes in physical education and sport in the Bulgarian school system participated in the research study. The teachers have different levels of professional qualification. A modified questionnaire was applied, with 22 items related to the satisfaction with the teaching profession. The statistical methods used for the research were: variance analysis, factor analysis (principal component analysis), non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests.</p> <p>The following four factors related to the satisfaction of the profession were identified: organization and professional environment, social working conditions, reforms in education, education and personal development. The items with highest values were: the duration of holidays, professional relations with colleagues, professional relations with the school management, and professional relations with parents. The items with lowest values were: the amount of the salary, the professional relations with the Ministry of education and science, the prestige of the profession, and the reforms in education. Factors related to the internal educational environment have the greatest impact on the satisfaction of the surveyed teachers.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ELECTRONIC MONITORING IN SLOVAK CRIMINAL JUSTICE 2019-10-24T14:28:25+02:00 Libor Klimek Jaroslav Klátik <p>This contribution deals with electronic monitoring in Slovak criminal justice. Its objective is the assessment of the most crucial contemporary documents containing requirements addressed to competent national authorities, as well as its problems. To fulfil this objective, it analyses documents of the European Union and the National Council of the Slovak Republic. It is divided into three sections. The first section introduces the general legal background of electronic monitoring in Slovak national law. The second section analyses its legal basis – Act No. 78/2015 Coll. on Control of the Enforcement of Certain Decisions by Technical Instruments. The third section is focused on special issues surrounding the electronic monitoring in the Slovak Republic. Despite the fact that electronic monitoring in Slovak criminal justice has been applied for some years, many problems occurred at the national level. Electronic monitoring in Slovak criminal justice is understood as an alternative in standard criminal proceedings. There is no obligation to use this system. Indeed, control by technical instruments is an optional possibility, not a mandatory obligation. Electronic monitoring in the Slovak Republic is regulated by the Act No. 78/2015 Coll. on Control of the Enforcement of Certain Decisions by Technical Instruments. This Act regulates the technical instruments and the conditions for their use in controlling the execution of certain selected types of decisions in criminal matters in criminal proceedings. The objective of the Act No. 78/2015 Coll. on Control of the Enforcement of Certain Decisions by Technical Instruments is to create the legal conditions for the effective application of the control of execution of certain selected decisions – in particular judicial decisions adopted by the courts – by technical instruments. Such technical instruments should improve the use of alternative sanctions or alternative criminal proceedings.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE IMPACT OF MENTAL MAPPING ON PUPILS' ATTITUDES TO LEARNING 2019-10-24T14:29:23+02:00 Rebeka Štefánia Koleňáková Nina Kozárová <p>In education, it is essential to ensure that the relationship established between pupils and education or learning itself is positive. A teacher should help pupils while building their inner knowledge system and ensure that this process is conducted without coercion but with interest and a positive attitude.</p> <p>The subject of the research are mental maps and their impact on attitudes of primary school pupils to “learning”. In the research investigation, a questionnaire with 11 items was used and the respondents were primary school pupils who regularly work with mental maps in the educational process, and pupils who do not work with mental maps regularly. The results of the survey point out the disparities in attitudes to “learning”. 85% of surveyed pupils who regularly use mental maps indicated that they learn faster and better, they also stated that learning in school is fun, whereas only 55% of pupils in the second group who do not work with mental maps regularly share this opinion.</p> <p>Based on creating a mental map, pupils become active participants in the educational process and create knowledge structures without repeated explanation. Pupils’ activity using mental maps in the educational process seems to be the first efficient step towards better learning and a more positive attitude to this process.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PLOVDIV – THE CULTURAL CAPITAL OF BULGARIA 2019-10-24T14:30:20+02:00 Vasil Kolev <p>This paper is focused on the cultural diversity of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria that has been developed and preserved during the town’s existence and its impact of the cultural life across the country that eventually led to the election of the city as European Capital of Culture 2019. Several events not well known to the general public were key factors for the preservation of the multicultural appearance and diversity of the city. A review of the four-year framework of programmes, projects and events implemented under the project “European Capital of Culture” funded by European Union is presented. The aim of the article is to present an analysis of the possibilities and the specifics in the development of projects from the creative industries in the city.</p> <p>The article also reflects part of the results of an empirical survey conducted in the period 2017-2018 in the city of Plovdiv among 105 creative organizations through their managers. The purpose of the empirical study was to investigate the management profile of the art organizations, including the opportunities and capacities for developing and managing projects and using the European Union's creativity-related programs.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors EDUCATION CONCERNING HISTORICAL CITIES AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN ORIGINAL CURRICULUM TAUGHT TO STUDENTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE AND SPATIAL MANAGEMENT COURSES 2019-10-24T14:31:37+02:00 Dominika Kuśnierz-Krupa <p>This article discusses the need for social education—in this case, concerning students of the architecture and spatial management courses—on the matter of the protection of historical cities. In response to this need, the author of the article has formulated two original curricula covering this scope. They are taught at the Cracow University of Technology. The first, as a seminar, is addressed to students of the architecture course and has been named “Protection of historical cities”. The second is taught as a spatial management course in the form of design classes and has been named “Legal and social conditions in the protection of the cultural landscape”. The need to educate students of architecture and spatial management on the matter of the protection of the cultural landscape of historical cities is necessary due to the potential threat to cultural heritage that is posed by new development projects. Future architects and planners must understand the need to protect historical assets and the value of historical urban layouts and precious works of architecture. Only then will they be able to properly, correctly and responsibly practice their future profession which will include, among other things, the verification of and participation (to a varying degree) in the process of carrying out architectural and urban design projects, often in a historical environment. It should be noted that the protection of cultural heritage, including historical cities, is an important aspect of the functioning of every society, as cultural heritage is an essential factor of the life and conduct of every person. It constitutes the material and spiritual legacy of past generations, as well as the legacy of our time.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 3D INNOVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION 2019-10-24T14:32:58+02:00 Penio Lebamovski Mitko Gospodinov <p>Introduction: Studying the discipline of stereometry is difficult for students who do not have spatial imagination. To overcome this problem, software applications are being created in addition to traditional training methods to improve the understanding of 3D geometry.</p> <p>Objectives:&nbsp; The subject of this article is the presentation of the functionality and tools of a created software application in teaching stereometry, with the help of which students will construct, observe, measure and study 3D geometric shapes, as well as create dynamic images.</p> <p>Methods: The methods: stereoscopy, polygon triangulation, cleaning/extrusion, and level of detail were used to create 3D geometric shapes via the software application designed for the secondary education of the Bulgarian students in stereometry</p> <p>Results:<strong>&nbsp; </strong>The software application created the following objects in 3D space: regular prism (three to six sides), general three-sided prism, special four-sided prism, regular pyramid (three to six sides), cube, sphere, cone and cylinder. The parameters of any geometric object can be adjusted, including the height and length of the sides, the slope of the sides, the number of sides, etc. Each object can be gradually opened or closed from its main network to the geometric object. Each parameter correction is interactive and visible immediately. Geometric shapes can be rotated in space, zoomed in to or out of, and viewed as a solid object or transparent net, as well as have the ability to change colors.</p> <p>Conclusion:&nbsp; With the software application created, new opportunities for teaching and learning in the subject of stereometry are provided, which helps students to more easily understand spatial geometry and the ability of teachers to explain abstract problems in 3D geometry.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RESEARCH OF THE ABILITY TO ISOLATE SYLLABLES FROM WORDS IN PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN 2019-10-24T14:33:59+02:00 Monika Máčajová Soňa Grofčíková <p>The presented study deals with theoretical starting points, issues and research findings in the area of phonological awareness in relation to the elementary linguistic literacy of preschool aged children in Slovakia. The theoretical-empirical study is focused on a child´s ability to manipulate with syllables. The research was conducted with 866 respondents in the age range of four to seven years old. The aim was to find out a child´s ability to isolate certain syllables from a word and name the word or syllable resulting from the removal of the specified syllable. Except two tasks for practicing, there were five tested words. Children presented their skill to isolate or omit initial, middle and final syllables in the tested words. The results are part of a more extensive study focused on the development of a complex tool used to evaluate the level of phonemic awareness.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF GENDER EQUALITY, CHANGE OF PARADIGM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RELATIONS. PERSISTENT SOCIAL INEQUALITIES 2019-10-24T14:35:04+02:00 Hermína Mareková <p>The phenomenon of poverty in Slovakia exists not just because of its controversial understanding from a global perspective. Since 2000, Slovakia has been one of the Member States of the OECD group, which represents the most economically developed countries in the world. The definition of poverty is problematic because it cannot be narrowed down to the problem of minimum income and poverty cannot just be a statistical figure. We understand poverty in Slovakia in the sense of an uneven distribution of resources, which has a negative impact on the development of economic, educational and socio-cultural relations in individual regions as well as on the uneven ability to use these resources. This inequality is reflected mainly in the case of women, as maternity is a lifetime handicap for women. For this reason, they become vulnerable to violence in their relationships and are regarded as less valuable and more responsible for the situation. Social disparities include debt repayment, threat of execution and rent arrears. The greatest impact on social relations was brought about by the change that occurred in the second third of the twentieth century when we witnessed the process of changing social paradigms. To address the issue in our contribution, we focus on the persisting problems of gender equality and its implications for the development of social relationships and social inequalities.</p> <p>In this paper, we used the analytic and synthetic method of document processing, followed by a comparison within the issues in question, and at the same time we created a new arrangement.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors VIEWS OF VOLUNTARY IMMIGRANTS ON LIFE IN SLOVAKIA 2019-10-24T20:58:44+02:00 Daniel Markovič <p>Slovakia is not perceived as a destination country for forced or voluntary migrants in the European Union. Nevertheless, the number of foreigners living legally in Slovakia has increased more than fourfold since Slovakia joined the European Union in 2004. The aim of this paper is to recognize the views of voluntary immigrants on their own life in Slovakia. In our research, we are interested in migrants who chose small towns in Slovakia, which are culturally and linguistically homogeneous. We have chosen a qualitative research strategy. The research design is of a biographical design and a grounded theory. As a research tool, we chose an individual structured interview (in-depth interview). For qualitative data analysis, we used coding; we set descriptive and inductive codes, subcategories and categories. The subject of research is eight voluntary immigrants to Slovakia who have been living in Slovakia for at least one year at the time of the study. Thus, they meet the long-term migration criterion. Participants were selected on a deliberate basis to cover the phenomenon of voluntary migration. Due to the chosen research design, theoretical sampling was utilized. Our research confirmed the assumptions of voluntary migration described by Pierce (1999). Not only participants from developing countries, but also participants from countries with higher HDI than Slovakia praise the work and business opportunities in Slovakia. Participants identified the following areas of life benefits in Slovakia: employment, economic and social conditions, leisure, cultural and development activities, and environmental issues. Negative aspects of life include negative administrative experiences, lower living comfort, worse social conditions and the environment.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE EFFECTS OF EDUCATION, DEMOGRAPHY AND ACCESS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR STRUCTURE AND EFFICIENCY 2019-10-24T21:00:08+02:00 Alda Miftari Arta Musaraj <p>The correlation between Education and Development has been widely investigated under the point of view of Economics, referring to the labour-intensive sectors and effects on their efficiency, as well as in the Social Sciences point of view, by focusing on the characteristics of the rural population, structure and cohesion, gender issues and the output it has on the development of agriculture in a given area. Referring to access policies into Agri-environmental schemes we will discuss the adoption of new technologies for sustainable rural development, environmental enhancement of the farm and the caution laissez-faire attitude to environmental protection. The data set selected for elaboration on this article are produced by the ISTAT institute on tome series from 2010 to 2015. Attention in this paper was focused on whether education level, age and gender has influenced social policies and the decision-making of producer policies. The results of this research are to investigate and affect factors on agricultural development by proposing a specific framework of analysis and interpretation including correlations existing between age, education and farmer contractors, demographic density changes and the empirical approaches, adopted by rural sociologist.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE RECOGNITION OF EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS IN THE GLOBAL COMPACT MARRAKECH 2019-10-24T21:01:14+02:00 Marek Moška Peter Plavčan <p>This text provides an overview of the international document on the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular migration, alongside other international documents, in particular issued by the European Union, on the recognition of professional qualifications. Comments on the individual provisions of the document are also provided in connection with possible application practice.</p> <p>It is based on the current state of migration in Europe and the world, and explains the causes and consequences, details of migratory waves and the consequences of non-compliance with legal regulations by individual states in this area.</p> <p>In addition, the Global Compact is characterized, and the positive impacts and the requirements on important facts that are crucial for migrants in the receiving states are outlined. The negative impacts of migration in the social, economic and cultural spheres are also described.</p> <p>The text lists one of the 23 objectives of the Global Compact, namely the development of skills and the mutual recognition of skills, qualifications and competences. It highlights the risks of recognizing education and qualifications from the point of view of regulated and unregulated professions in the Member States of the European Union. This issue is governed by special regulations.</p> <p>Finally, the European Union Member States are recommended to focus on the actual employability of migrants on their labour markets by focusing on language courses for migrants, social assistance and, in particular, on organizing specialized courses for migrants to carry out specific activities in the field of specific occupations with employers in unregulated professions. Of course, the performance of regulated migrant professions is also proposed when meeting the requirements.</p> <p>Key words: global framework, migration, recognition of professional qualifications, international document.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors FAMILY NEEDS OF INCURABLE ILL CHILDREN IN THE CONTEXT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION 2019-10-24T21:02:19+02:00 Kristína Nagyová Terézia Harčaríková <p>Incurable disease of children is one of the most difficult periods in the life of a family. The family must adapt to the new challenges that bring the illness and everything adapts to the needs of the child. However, we often don´t realize and even don´t know that the family needs must also be fulfilled. The paper presents partial results of the research aimed at identifying the needs of the family with an incurable ill child in a special pedagogical context. For the collection of research data a semi-structured interview with assistants working in the area of child palliative care was conducted. The obtained data were processed by qualitative analysis. The results point to the necessity of a transdisciplinary approach to children with incurable illness and their families – psychologist, social worker, clergymen, and special educator.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors KNOWLEDGE ALLIANCE AS EDUCATION SERVICES: UPDATED CONTENT OF INTEGRATED FLIGHT PREPARATION AND TRAINING OF PILOTS 2019-10-24T21:06:19+02:00 Hélia Némethová Stanislav Szabo Róbert Rozenberg <p>The article examines the current aspects of new education and training of pilots within the Knowledge Alliance of Aviation Education as the State-Privat Partnership in the Education Services in the conditions of the Slovak Republic. This article represents the part of the feasibility study. In order to ensure the continuity, quality and safety in the aviation education of future military and civil pilots as the aviation professionals, research works of a similar nature are needed. This article used analysis and synthesis tools, the method “per partes” (integration in parts) and the expert method. Authors solved the following praxeological questions: Which entity is competent and eligible for the comprehensive training of pilots as professionals? What kind of organization of education processes will ensure the required output and efficient use of available public and private resources? The answers to the praxeological issues are presented as the proposal of content of integrated flight preparation and training of pilots under the key leadership of the Air Force and their state, public and private partners. The output of the article is the proposal for the new content of the education and training of pilots.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors IN-WORK POVERTY IN LATVIA 2019-10-24T21:07:44+02:00 Mareks Niklass <p>The results of a survey carried out in Latvia in 2015 are examined to estimate the scope and depth of in-work poverty. The widely used EU-SILC data considerably underestimate in-work poverty in Latvia. Logistic regression analysis indicates that persons with low education, poor health, persons of pre-retirement age, and those employed in non-standard work arrangements are more likely exposed to a high in-work poverty risk. Social transfers and the income of other household members do not significantly reduce this risk. The Latvian government should provide adequate social protection and funding to alleviate the in-work poverty problem.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SOCIAL GENDER ROLES IN PERCEPTION OF FEMALE AND MALE POLISH STUDENTS 2019-10-24T21:08:51+02:00 Dominika Ochnik Mirjam Holleman <p>The aim of the study was to reveal social gender roles in the perception of male and female Polish students. The social gender roles have been examined in the context of cultural consensus.</p> <p>The Cultural Models Scenario has been used with 223 participants. The research method is based on series of brief scenarios that were created with an anthropological methodology. After in-depth interviews in Polish society, basic social roles were described in scenarios. In the first phase the group of respondents (<em>N</em> = 104) evaluated the gender social norms in the scenarios. In the second phase the following group with similar socioeconomical characteristic (<em>N</em> = 119) answered the questions while the opposite sex were introduced into the scenarios.</p> <p>The results revealed that women were valued higher compared to men in, both stereotypical and non-stereotypical social roles. This confirms the consideration of Polish culture as female. Although women were assessed higher in the least valued social roles and most of the valued domains related to work – what prompts the masculinity of a culture. The masculine social role turned out to be perceived as clearly traditional – mostly limited to financial resources, particularly in the women’s perspective. The least recognized social role with strong negative social consensus was a 40-year old single man. A single man turned out to be the least socially approved which may explain the poor psychological functioning of single men in the context of social consonance.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT: A REVIEW OF THE EFFICACY OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN WORKING WITH PATIENTS WHO HAVE DEMENTIA 2019-10-24T21:09:55+02:00 Victor Otieno Okech Monika Mačkinová Petronela Šebestová Pavol Kopinec <p>Communication is the main currency through which we make transactions in the social world. Without it, interactions among people would be mechanical. Dementia is one of the mental disorders with the abilities of excluding one from participating in a social world. The aim of this study was to review literature on the efficacy of nonverbal communication when working with people living with dementia.</p> <p>A narrative style of literature review was used in writing this article. It involved conducting an online search of articles from the following scientific databases (2000-2019): ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect, Wiley online library, Springer Link, and Oxford Journals. Only articles that had been peer reviewed were selected in writing this review. The process of selecting articles involved pairing the word dementia in every search with the following key words: communication, epidemiology, types, nonverbal, touch, instrumental, expressive, facial expressions and eye contacts, and personal space. Themes were then extracted from the selected articles.</p> <p>From our findings we concluded that nonverbal communication is an important component for working with people living with dementia. This is because people living with dementia have a reduced capacity to use the verbal form of communication. This now makes it necessary for professionals providing care to people living with dementia to be acquainted with nonverbal forms of communication.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DIDACTIC MINI VIDEO GAMES – STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ POINT OF VIEW 2019-10-24T21:10:54+02:00 Elena Paunova-Hubenova <p>Computer games are used more and more often in education. Their application in the learning process brings a lot of benefits and advantages compared to the classic form of teaching without the use of new technologies. Some of the more sophisticated games can include a variety of smaller ones, which supplement their functionality. In this article are described in detail the mini-games, which will be part of a 3D educational labyrinth game. They include: quiz, 2D puzzle, solving a Wordsearch Puzzle, rolling balls, shooting on moving inanimate objects, etc. The characteristics of mini-games are considered, and they may be mandatory or optional. The opinions of students and teachers regarding their preferences for the mini-games and the results are studied and compared. Surprisingly, according to the survey, teachers show a more positive attitude towards educational games than students. The APOGEE project aims to create a platform for automatically generating an educational 3D labyrinth game that can be easily used by teachers, even if they are not IT specialists. Thus, they will have the opportunity to choose the right mini-games and the necessary training material.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE IN RELATION TO HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM IN SLOVAKIA 2019-10-24T21:12:16+02:00 Barbara Pavlíková <p>Introduction: Preventive measures in a&nbsp;field of health care are cheaper than addressing the consequences of neglected diagnosis and treatment. Aim of this study is to present the Slovak legislation and national plans in the field of preventive health care. This issue is discussed in relation to financing of health care from the health insurance.</p> <p>Methods: This study was conducted by using the method of content analysis of selected legislative and non-legislative documents and statistical reports of the Slovak ministries (finance, health) and of health insurance companies.</p> <p>Results: In Slovakia, universal and selective preventive health care is available for health care payers. Number of people who undergo the preventive examination differs in selected areas and the expenditure on medical treatment and addressing the consequences of neglected prevention are still high. Control plans are vague and do not cover concrete steps leading to achievement of goals presented. Access of marginalized groups of population to the preventive health care is still at very low level.</p> <p>Conclusion: The system of preventive health care measures in Slovakia is relatively well-defined in legislation and supports the provision of preventive care. However, it is not enforced. There are no serious sanctions in case of neglecting patient´s obligations and people are not motivated to undergo preventive examinations. Only sanctions that in some cases work are financial. The detailed research of access of people from socially disadvantaged environment to the preventive care is desirable.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SITUATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF INTEGRATED FLIGHT PREPARATION AND TRAINING OF PILOTS AS AN EDUCATION SERVICE 2019-10-24T21:13:18+02:00 Pavol Petríček Stanislav Szabo Róbert Rozenberg <p>This article examines the situational management of the Knowledge Alliance of Aviation Education as an Education Service in the conditions of the Slovak Republic. It is the second part of our study. In order to ensure the continuity, quality and safety in the aviation education of future military and civil pilots as aviation professionals, research works of a similar nature are needed. This article uses analysis and synthesis tools, the method “per partes” (integration in parts) with the potential to apply the situational management method in the aviation practice and the expert method. Authors solved the following praxeological questions: What does situational management mean in the education and training of pilots? What are the sources of knowledge and good practice in the management of education and training of pilots? Which control processes can we use for the efficient management of education and training of pilots as a complex aviation system?&nbsp; The output of the article is the proposal of situational management of the comprehensive system of education and training of pilots with the support of evolutionary and cooperative management in the aviation practice of state-private entities.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ACTIVISATION OF THE CREATIVE POTENTIAL IN 7/8-YEAR OLD CHILDREN BY IMPLEMENTATION OF MIXED PAINTING TECHNIQUES IN FINE ART EDUCATION 2019-10-24T21:14:41+02:00 Petar Petrov <p>Introduction: The article explores some processes that activate the creative potential of 7/8- year old children after mixed painting techniques introduction and application. Problems on a theoretical and empirical level are discussed, based primarily on the children's creative activity results and determined by the degrees of free experimental application of painting and non-painting materials.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Study Objective: The usage of some mixed techniques in the fine arts is considered and how they reflect on the dynamics of the children's education creative process.</p> <p>Methods: During the experimental work, the following methods are applied: monitoring and analysing the processes of working with different materials, experimenting with mixed painting techniques, composition analysis, image and richness of the expression means.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Results: In the course of the study, it is established that the usage of more than one material for the pictorial activity significantly increases child creativity and better image in graphic and artistic terms are acquired, composition and richness of expression means are attained.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusions: The application of mixed painting techniques in fine art education of 7/8-year olds increases the creative activity, builds a lasting interest in the fine art, and enhances the emotional and aesthetic impact.&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors WHY DO PUPILS FROM SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS FAIL IN TECHNICAL SUBJECTS? 2019-10-24T21:15:54+02:00 Jakub Pikna Zuzana Frajštaková <p>Goal: The main objective of this research is to identify the causes of difficulity that pupils from socially disadvantaged backgrounds face in technical subjects at primary school.</p> <p>Methods: The research group consisted of 65 respondents, of whom 59 were women teachers and 6 were man teachers. The research method was a questionnaire of our own production.</p> <p>Results: The biggest barrier that pupils from socially disadvantaged backgrounds face is the insufficient conditions for education (97%). From our research results we also perceive the parents' lack of cooperation with teachers (68%). As many as 63% of respondents do not use any form of intervention for disadvantaged pupils. 37% of respondents use methods such as: experiential methods, motivational methods, reward and punishment methods, demonstration and observation methods, brainstorming, repetition methods, practical demonstrations, competitions and games, individual approaches, information - communication technologies and teaching aids.</p> <p>Conclusions: The biggest problem is the lack of cooperation between the socially disadvantaged pupil's family and the school. In the future, it would be appropriate to measure the issue with a higher number of respondents as well as focus on the teaching process with the intent to determine the different methods which are used to prevent the difficulty that pupils from socially disadvantaged backgrounds face.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE COMPARISON OF PISA EDUCATIONAL RESULTS WITH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT IN MEMBER STATES OF EUROPEAN UNION 2019-10-24T21:17:13+02:00 Peter Plavčan <p>The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) – an OECD international survey project, has become the base for an international comparison of students’ results. This publication is oriented on the wide evaluation of basic statistical data in scientific, mathematical and reading literacy of students. We compare the main results of students in scientific, mathematical and reading literacy and the tendencies of GDP and expenditure to education from the GDP of the Member states of the European Union. PISA helps identify key problems and create effective school policy for all stakeholders.</p> <p>It seems evident that the above-average education expenditure percentage of the gross domestic product affects also the above-average values of the index of the sum of the scores obtained in the pupils´ scientific, mathematical as well as reading literacy for the sum of the years 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015 in the period under review. It seems Member States which spend a higher above-average education expenditure percentage of their gross domestic product have, on a long-term basis, above-average and relatively stable results in the summary index but also individually – in the pupils´ scientific, mathematical and reading literacy.</p> <p>Political and professional decisions to increase education expenditure evidently positively affect the quality of education at schools in general, regardless of how the “economy is doing”. Our results of the analysis support the assumption that even in the case of a state´s restrictive budget, expenditure on education and creative activity in general should not be restricted.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE HUMAN RIGHTS RELATIVIZED. PROJECT PREVENTION’S CASES OF PAID STERILIZATION 2019-10-24T21:18:39+02:00 Bartosz Płotka Kamila Rezmer <p><strong>:</strong> In 2010 a coordinator of the Kenya Treatment Access Movement, James Kamau, announced that Project Prevention – the organization founded by Barbara Harris which pays HIV-positive or drug addicted women for a short- and long-term contraception, including irreversible sterilization – violates provisions against discrimination in the Kenyan HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act of 2006. Commentators add that Harris’ initiative violates also Kenyan women’s autonomy, reproductive interests and especially their human rights, and therefore they find it unambiguously wrong, unethical and evil. On the other hand, Harris defends her organization against these accusations by claiming that in fact it protects human rights and the other enlisted values. In this article we aim to present Project Prevention’s operations in Kenya and to demonstrate why answering a seemingly simple question – who was right in the dispute? –&nbsp; in current circumstances is impossible by definition. To illustrate that we show that it is mainly because of the human rights relative interpretations and we propose a political-philosophical solution to the discussed and similar problems in the future.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COMPETENCIES AND ROLES OF A SOCIAL CURATOR IN WORKING WITH RISKY YOUTH AND CRISIS INTERVENTION 2019-10-24T21:26:58+02:00 Boris Pták Soňa Šrobárová Zuzana Gejdošová <p>The terms crisis and crisis intervention are a very wide-ranging issue, which is why we focused on social curators and field social workers working at the Department of Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Guard in the Slovak Republic. Specifically, their perception and use of crisis intervention methods in practice.&nbsp;The aim was to find out the perception of social curators and field social workers of social protection, their use of crisis intervention methods in practice. In the framework of the researched issue, we present detailed results on the established relationships between the variables studied in relation to the theoretical knowledge and the findings of previous research in this area.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CRISIS INTERVENTION IN THE WORK OF SOCIAL AND LEGAL PROTECTION AND CURATION IN SLOVAKIA. AN ANALYSIS OF TARGET GROUPS AND METHODS 2019-10-24T21:28:37+02:00 Boris Pták Soňa Šrobárová <p>The terms crisis and crisis intervention are a very large issue in this paper, we focused on social curators and field social workers working at the Department of Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Guard in the Slovak Republic, their perception and use of crisis intervention methods in practice. As amended by Act no. 305/2005 Coll. on Social and Legal Protection of Children, a Social Curator is from the Central Office of Labor, Social Affairs and Family and the Offices of Labor, Social Affairs and Family, Center for International Legal Protection of Children and Youth, Municipality, Higher Territorial Unit, Legal Entity or Individual. These implements measures of social and legal protection of children and social guardianship and are obliged to ensure that rights are not endangered or violated. The right of this intervention is precisely the position of crisis intervention in this legislative system.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DIDACTICAL ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE MASTERS OF PHARMACY STUDENTS 2019-10-24T21:29:29+02:00 Tetiana Reva Iryna Nizhenkovska Olena Holik <p>This article highlights the main problems in the national healthcare system of Ukraine that have an impact on its higher pharmaceutical education as well as examines the challenges the system of professional pharmaceutical training faces today. This paper deals with the didactical aspects of professional training of future Masters of Pharmacy students that ensure acquisition of professional competencies in the context of the course of pharmaceutical chemistry. The study delivers evidence that the outlined didactical aspects realized through the modern teaching technologies and proper forms of the learning process organization improve the academic performance of future Masters of Pharmacy students and contribute to an increase in their general motivation to study professionally-oriented disciplines</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SLOVAKIA 2019-10-24T21:30:24+02:00 Petronela Šebestová Monika Mačkinová <p>Social entrepreneurship is a long-discussed issue in the countries of the European Union as well as in other countries worldwide. In the Slovak Republic this issue mostly interests younger people who search the possibilities for social entrepreneurship in their home regions in order to eliminate the lack of accessibility of certain services. The social economy is considered as an important tool of social inclusion. The Slovak Republic adopted as one of the few Member States of the European Union the act on social economy and social enterprises. We consider the creation of legislative framework of social economy and social enterprises in Slovakia as an innovative solution, even in the comparison with other Member States of the European Union. The aim of this paper is to present to the scientific public the importance of setting up social enterprises at the national level. An essential addition to the objective is also to show the width of potential that social enterprises have after the adoption of the Act on Social Economy and Social Enterprises.</p> <p>Legislation eliminates potential debatable redistribution of the profit of social enterprises. The profit from social entrepreneurship should primarily cover the basic life needs of the disadvantaged groups of persons as well as generally beneficial activities for the community and/or region. Social entrepreneurship gets into discourse of public policy mainly as a tool aimed to provide the opportunity for the persons that were unemployed for a longer time to gain working habits again or for persons that suffer from multiple disadvantages to become active on the labour market. It may also be a reliable instrument for solving the sale of goods or provision of services which are not provided or insufficiently provided by the private sector.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE ROLE OF TEXT ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION 2019-10-24T21:31:14+02:00 Katarína Seresová Daniela Breveníková <p>The aim of this paper is to describe and explain the function of text analysis for understanding a source text, producing an acceptable translation and the assessment of that translation. Basic concepts (e.g. extratextual and intratextual factors, stages of the translation process, understanding of the source text, readability of the target text, and translator competences) are discussed in terms of translation theory in the theoretical part of the paper. Translator analysis of internal and external textual factors contributes to the knowledge of external and internal text factors of the source text and enables the translator to better understand the text itself, its function and aim, which the client (one who orders the translation) wishes to achieve, so that the translation fully meets the translation order. In the course of a text analysis, the translator forms an overview of the source text and acquires a&nbsp;clear idea of how the text should and will look.</p> <p>Students of the University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Applied Languages are expected to acquire knowledge and skills that would enable them to translate relevant documents from the source language to the target language, and vice versa, as well as to search, analyse, and process foreign language materials for their future employers’ needs. The final part of the paper contains an example illustrating how the training of the initial stage of text analysis should be conducted. It contains the description of the authors’ experience in translating professional German and English texts and teaching translation classes at the University of Economics in Bratislava.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COMMUNICATION BY TEXT IN THE PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION FOR TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE 2019-10-24T21:32:04+02:00 Desislava Siderova <p>In the present study, communication by texts is seen as a prerequisite for constructing textual competence through case studies in the university students’ training. The thematic texts are oriented to nature-related concepts that create an integrative context of the learning (kindergarten children’s poems in the pedagogical interaction are aimed at developing professional competence in future pre-school teachers). Nonparametric methods for nominal data are used (test of goodness of fit and test of independence). The predominant text-initiating technique (the descriptive one) in the case study predetermines the leading orientation of the students towards the knowledge about the natural world as part of the educational field "Еnvironment" in the kindergarten (47.62% of all the integration opportunities). The research shows that students in pedagogy find successful decisions on professional cases.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RAISING AWARENESS OF SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK IN SLOVAKIA 2019-10-24T21:32:55+02:00 Veronika Šimonová Miroslav Tvrdoň <p>The objective of the present study was to point out the current perception of the roles of school social workers and other professional staff members in secondary schools from the perspective of school managers. In conducting the research, the authors focused on interrelationships between social work and education. In using the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews, the authors analysed the current state in the school environment from the perspective of school managers in secondary schools in the Nitra Region. There were 16 respondents included in the study. According to the respondents, the school environment is able to recruit professional staff members, and thus reflect the increasing need for professional interventions in dealing with increasing social risk factors. According to our findings, the most acceptable form is employing a school social worker directly by the school. In the present, however, there is insufficient funding, legislative anchoring of school social work, and specialised education for social workers.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SOCIAL INCLUSION OF ROMA YOUTH IN THE CONTEXT OF RISK BEHAVIOUR 2019-10-24T21:33:48+02:00 Katarína Šiňanská Lucia Tóthová <p>A specific feature of the Roma community is socialization on two levels - integration into their own Roma community, and integration into the majority of society. This paper focuses on a specific group of adolescents, namely the Roma youth, while the social inclusion of this youth is considered by authors an important phenomenon, from which the life of the individual further unfolds, as well as risk behaviour manifested in it, in which adolescents participate to a greater extent compared to other developmental stages.</p> <p>On the empirical level, this paper focuses on the need for social inclusion and achieved social inclusion of respondents. The research sample consisted of Roma youth living in marginalized settlements in eastern Slovakia, and respondents living outside of Roma settlements. The result was the finding that these groups of adolescents do not differ in the need of social inclusion, but the achieved social inclusion demonstrated more in Roma adolescents living outside of the settlements. By comparing these two values, it has been shown that Roma adolescents living in settlements feel pushed away, unworthy of the attention of others, and underestimated. On the other hand, Roma living outside of settlements feel harassed, oppressed, and subjected to group pressure and social conventions.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ON SOME SELECTED ASPECTS OF TEACHING AND TESTING ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SLOVAK UPPER-SECONDARY EDUCATION 2019-10-24T21:34:36+02:00 Martina Šipošová <p>The complexity of English grammar, which represents one of the most intricate language issues practised in the EFL classroom (not only) in Slovak educational context, has been intensively researched for decades. Teaching and testing grammar as two sides of the same coin represent a complex of aspects which EFL teachers still cast doubt on. This article deals with the concept of teaching and testing upper-secondary students’ knowledge of grammar which is put in the framework of methodology of grammar teaching and testing. The author sheds light on upper-secondary students’ knowledge of grammar measured through selected types of grammar tasks administered in to a group of 770 Slovak grammar school students. The research results are based on a quantitative research paradigm, and the samples were statistically tested by the non-parametric Friedman test with post-hoc pairwise comparisons, and supplemented by the repeated-measures ANOVA test. Since grammar school Slovak teenage learners of English are obliged to pass a school-leaving exam including tasks examining their knowledge of grammar, the author points out basic incongruence concerning students’ actual performance in selected grammar test tasks.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TEXT TASKS – PREREQUISITE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE THINKING IN STUDENTS FROM GRADES 1-4 2019-10-24T21:35:30+02:00 Maria Temnikova <p>Introduction: Creative work with text tasks helps to improve the educational process in mathematics for Grades 1-4, to create opportunities for developing education, to provoke the cognitive activity of the students and to develop their thinking.&nbsp;</p> <p>Object: The object of this research work is to study certain tendencies for creative work with text tasks and to develop their respective methodology options for work in the education of mathematics for Grades 1-4.</p> <p>This research work presents some theoretical concepts related to: text tasks; the stages for their solving, some of the tendencies for creative work with them; and the problem-productive strategy for education in mathematics in the primary school.&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods: The experimental work includes qualitative and quantitative research of the problems specified in the above paragraph. The following methods were applied: didactical experiment, observation, test, content analysis, mathematical-statistical method for data processing.</p> <p>Results: As a result of the experimental work it was found out that the percentage of the students from Grade 4 who failed to solve the text tasks with direct and indirect use of relations decreased from 31.2 % to 8.5 %. The percentage of the students who failed to describe situations from their surrounding environment using a mathematical model decreased from 45.3 % to 10.1 %.&nbsp;&nbsp; The percentage of the students who correctly composed text tasks increased from 29.5% to 71.6%. The difference in the results was proven to be statistically significant.</p> <p>Conclusion: The applied methodology system of work with text tasks helped to develop knowledge, skills and competencies from a competency cluster “Numbers” and “Modelling”, and to develop creative thinking in the students from Grades 1-4.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS FOR LEARNING THE EDUCATIONAL CONTENT IN GEOMETRY AS PART OF THE EDUCATION IN MATHEMATICS FOR GRADES 1 4 2019-10-24T21:36:19+02:00 Maria Temnikova <p>Introduction: The modernization of Bulgarian primary school education is directed towards the applied strategies, technologies, approaches, and methods as well as towards the introduction of new information technologies in the educational process in mathematics in primary school.&nbsp;</p> <p>Object: The object of the present research work is to study certain specific characteristics, opportunities, the field of application and the efficiency of the electronic textbooks and their use by the teachers during the process of learning geometry content in the education of mathematics for Grades 1-4.&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods: The experimental work includes qualitative and quantitative research of the problems specified in the above paragraph. The following methods were applied: didactical experiment, observation, test, content analysis, mathematical-statistical method for data processing.</p> <p>Results: The researchers performed observations and analysis of the frequency of use of electronic textbooks by the primary school teachers during geometry classes. Based on the results of the study it was found out that 86% of the teachers use electronic textbooks in their methodology work on a regular basis, 10% of them – from time to time and 4% do not use electronic textbooks at all.&nbsp;</p> <p>The analysis of the entry and the exit diagnostic determined that all student had an equal level of knowledge at the start of the experiment. However, the results on exit level of the knowledge, the skills and the competencies showed that there is significant difference. The results on the exit level of the students from the experimental class where electronic textbooks have been systematically used are from 26% to 34% higher than the results of the students from the referent class where textbook have not been systematically used.</p> <p>Conclusion: The use of electronic textbooks for learning geometry content during mathematics classes in primary school must be scientifically grounded and precise. The introduction of the electronic textbooks into the educational process helps to put the students in an active cognitive position and motivates them for work during mathematics classes.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INNOVATION IN CRIMINAL POLICY OF IMPOSING ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS IN SLOVAK JUSTICE 2019-10-24T21:37:17+02:00 Veronika Tóthová Simona Ferenčíková <p>Concept of alternative sanctions imposition is based on principal ideas of so called restorative justice. Fundamental theses of restorative justice have been reflected in the Slovak legislation upon the adoption of applicable criminal- law regulation, namely through the development of the system of so called alternative sanctions vs short-term sanctions of imprisonment. This category of sanctions includes home confinement as a&nbsp;central topic of the article. The sanction of home confinement has passed major changes since its establishment. Material-law terms of such sanction imposition and its essence have gradually changed upon effect of legislation tools. The article provides for analysis of home confinement sanction imposition terms pursuant to the Penal Act in the context of application issues that have been identified, concurrently searching for causes of low frequency of such sanction imposition from the statistical data analysis. Furthermore, the article points to significant application problems of home confinement execution associated with the probation officers institute and monitoring of the sanction execution by technical means that can be considered innovative in the area of sanction execution monitoring. In its final section, the article offers detailed analysis of draft legislation related to the terms of home confinement sanction imposition and execution, as well as the range of criminal acts that can be punished with home confinement. Accordingly, the article presents considerations of possible effects of the proposed regulation on the decision-making judicial praxis. This article is aimed at analyzing the essence and purpose of home imprisonment sanction, the terms of its imposition, application of technical means to control the imprisonment in the context of application praxis issues, as well as evaluating the proposed legal regulation that changes principal terms of home imprisonment sanction imposition and its effects on decision-making and the application praxis.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCIES OF TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAININGS ON DIVERSITY/MULTCULTURALISM FOR INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS AND THE INCLUSION OF ROMA AND MIGRANT CHIDREN - PROJECT ROMIGSC AS CASE STUDY 2019-10-24T21:38:12+02:00 Nada Trunk Širca Valerij Dermol Anica Novak Trunk <p>Education is a public good and a human right. Access to inclusive, equitable and good quality educational opportunities and assistance for all learners of any age needs to be ensured. Indeed, they are a precondition for social inclusion and protection, full participation in social and civic spheres of life, long-term integration into the labour market and the prevention of exploitation.</p> <p>In this paper, we discuss the importance of multicultural competencies of teachers and the role of formations/ teacher trainings to support inclusion in schools - with a focus on Roma and migrant children. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the current situation regarding multicultural competencies and trainings/formations for teachers in Slovenia; and to present how participants of trainings for teachers (training in frame of project RoMigSc) see inclusion of Roma/migrants in Slovenian schools; and how important are teachers’ competencies for supporting inclusion. The methods used in this study are literature review, small-scale research among participants of teacher training in Slovenia in 2017 and 2018; and policy formulations from deliveries of teacher trainings in four countries - Slovenia, Italy, Spain and North Macedonia. The results from the small-scale research show that most of participants were teachers; 66% of respondents had been involved in work with migrant children; 52 % in work with Roma children. Respondents were in general very satisfied with the training delivery. Lessons learned which they liked the most refer to the involvement of different actors in ensuring inclusion; networking; and transfer of experience. The results also show that multicultural competencies of teachers and teacher trainings on diversity/multiculturalism are of key importance for supporting the inclusion of Roma/migrant children. From the results of the small-scale research and policy formulations (from four countries), we can conclude that intercultural competencies and high quality implementation of formations/teacher trainings are of key importance for supporting the inclusion of Roma/migrants in schools.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PERCEPTION OF MODERN CHARACTERS IN A GROUP OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 2019-10-24T21:39:03+02:00 Stanislava Turská Jana Kurotová jana.kurotova@fpedas.uniza.skv Dominika Hoštáková Roman Chinoracký <p>Nowadays we can run across various applications of modern technologies in all areas of social life. One of these applications is also an eye tracking technology that helps to answer questions related to human-computer interaction. Through the eye tracking technology we have tried to find out how primary school students perceive well-known comics characters with whom they come into contact through various information and communication technologies. Such a study is important in order to determine to which superhero characteristics children tend to be more inclined. Another reason why we decided to focus on this research is that there are currently no publications dealing with the issue. The main conclusion drawn from this research is the fact that primary school students are mainly interested in the positive characters of superheroes, but there are some other features that influence the perception of children, for example the colourful appearance of the character or the interesting equipment the character uses.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors APPLIED BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS THERAPY IN SPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICE 2019-10-24T21:39:52+02:00 Alica Vančová Kristína Nagyová <p>Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is an appropriate and scientifically based approach for individuals with different types of handicap. This paper focuses on the brief characteristics of the applied behavioral analysis and also presents the varied use of applied behavioral analysis in special pedagogy. Describing the individually developed ABA educational plans for a participant with autism, the authors point to the effectiveness of intervention based on applied behavioral analysis. For the collection of research data case studies, applied behavioral analysis methods, and participatory observations were used. The obtained data was processed by qualitative analysis. The results confirm the positive results obtained through ABA intervention, especially in the field of communication and behaviour.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CIVIL AND MILITARY AVIATION EDUCATION AS INTERDISCIPLINARY DIDACTIC SYSTEM: UPDATED KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND COMPETENCES 2019-10-24T21:40:36+02:00 Zuzana Zgodavová Daniela Čekanová Stanislav Szabo jr Marek Košuda Stanislav Szabo <p>On the basis of a national analysis and the expert discussion, this article presents a methodological approach to the realization of professional education and the creation of the required competencies for civilian and military aviation personnel, based on a system approach platform, with the application in the specific aviation education environment of future employees in the Transport sector. This article presents the third part of a study. The article used analysis and synthesis tools, the method “per partes” (integration in parts) and an expert method. The authors solved the following praxeological questions: How to identify the Interdisciplinary Didactic System for creating the required competencies of aviation personnel in the conditions of the Slovak Republic? What are the core themes of aviation knowledge in the Transport sector, the skills and competencies of our graduates? The strategic framework for the solutions is the implementation of a state education policy, the transport policy, the defence policy of the state and the relevant international and the European agenda, in the conditions of universities in Slovakia, in cooperation with their partners. The core outputs of this article are the framework knowledge, the skills and competences of graduates identified in the new field of study “Transport” in the Slovak Republic.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DYNAMICS OF THE CREATIVE INTERPRETATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION WITH ART IN A MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT 2019-10-26T16:34:48+02:00 Any Zlateva Katya Tineva-Gyurkovska <p>Introduction: The research paper tracks the changes in the regular development of the way children perceive visual arts. It views the dynamics of the creative interpretation of children at the pre-school age when directly communicating with pieces of art in a museum environment. An important stage of this study is related to the role of the informal gallery environment, which suggests an intense visual stimulation and reinforces children’s desire to actively take part in it.&nbsp; This imposes the application of specific integrated pedagogical approaches and methods, close to museum pedagogy and visual arts education.</p> <p>Purpose of the study: The research aims at tracing some of the main processes pertaining to the dynamics of the visual reaction of children of 6 to 7 years of age when directly communicating with visual arts and their level of creative interpretation in the process of drawing afterwards.</p> <p>Methods: For achieving the aims of the research we used some interdisciplinary methods. In the theoretical part we present some of the fundamental works on the subject. We emphasize the methods that integrate the history of art and pedagogy, which include: the description of the paintings with elements of formalism is the study of art and analysis of the visual reaction when communicating with pieces of art. This description should be adapted to the age of the children and some empirical and proximity pedagogical methods for evaluating the achieved results.</p> <p>Findings and results: In the first part of the research the accent is put on the different levels of reaction children have at the age of 6-7, regarding the recognition of separate compositional elements, objects, colours, forms, seasons, hours of the day, finding out emotional conditions and other important elements of composition sings in the observed pieces of art.</p> <p>In the second part we show the results and we systematize and analyze children’s free creative modulations. They concern different aspects of the visual stimulation and the following creative interpretation through the art activity of children at the age of 6-7. We observed the correlation between the drawings of the children and the perceived pieces of art, as a consequence of the stimulation of their visual perceptions and views. We analyzed the influence of a museum environment on children’s graphic, colourful and emotional expression through drawing.</p> <p>Conclusiоn: The summary and conclusion of the research provide the basis for development and optimization the methodological-pedagogical system of working with children in a formal and informal environment.</p> 2019-10-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Any Zlateva, Katya Tineva-Gyurkovska DIAGNOSIS OF BLOOD LOSS BY THE METHOD OF DIGITAL STOKS POLARIMETRY OF HISTOLOGICAL SECTIONS OF RECTUS ABDOMINAL MUSCLE 2019-10-24T21:42:48+02:00 Viktor Bachynskiy Oleh Vanchuliak Anastasiia-Vira Syvokorovska Marta Garazdiuk Alina Zavolovych <p>One of the important issues of forensic practice is the estimation of the volume of bleeding. Optical diagnostic methods of histological sections of tissue and liquids are perspective in this area.</p> <p>Material and methods. The objects of investigation are native histological sections of rectus abdominal muscle, taken from 48 corpses with acute blood loss and 10 – control group with acute coronary death.</p> <p>Results. The method of statistical analysis of the first-fourth Stokes vector parameters value distributions of microscopic images of histological sections of tissue with fibrillar structure (rectus abdominal muscle, skin, brain) of corpses with varying degrees of blood loss in order to estimate the bleeding volume was tested.</p> <p>The most sensitive statistical moments of the third and fourth orders that characterize the asymmetry and the kurtosis of change the level of blood loss of the deceased - V = 0 mm3 ÷ 1000 mm3 were revealed</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE EFFECT OF CREATIVE DRAMA ON EMPATHIC TENDENCIES, COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND CRITICAL THINKING OF PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS 2019-10-24T21:43:37+02:00 Murat Ali Çınar Elif Dinler Yavuz Yakut Yavuz Yakut <p>The empathic tendency, communication skills, and critical thinking are the professional attitude behaviors that should be in a physiotherapist. The study was planned to investigate the effects of creative drama on empathic tendencies, communication skills and critical thinking of physiotherapy students. This study was carried out in Hasan Kalyoncu University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation between October 2017 and December 2018. 75 freshman physiotherapy students (44 women, 31 men) were included in the study.&nbsp; According to the results obtained from the study; there was no significant difference between empathic tendencies, communication skills and critical thinking skills of individuals in both groups (p&gt; 0.05). When the creative drama group was compared in terms of gender, there was no significant difference between individuals' empathic tendencies, communication skills and critical thinking skills (p&gt; 0.05). Similarly, when the control group was compared in terms of gender, there was no significant difference between individuals' empathic tendencies, communication skills and critical thinking skills (p&gt; 0.05). We think that this study is a preliminary study on empathic tendencies, communication skills, and critical thinking skills of physiotherapy students. Parameters such as gender, different years of education, and welfare levels can affect empathic tendency, communication skills, and critical thinking skills. There are limited studies in the literature investigating the effectiveness of creative drama in the field of health. Therefore, this work can give an idea for subsequent studies. The studies that are conducted with more patients and which are multi-centered should be done.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SEROLOGICAL RESULTS OF MVV AND CAEV ANTIBODIES IN SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM SHEEP AND GOAT FLOCKS OF ROMANIA 2019-10-24T21:45:42+02:00 Dan Alexandru Enache Stelian Baraitareanu Marius Dan Maria Rodica Gurau Camelia Nuţiu Camelia Sarbu Doina Danes <p>INTRODUCTION: Maedi-Visna (MV) and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) are specific diseases of small ruminants caused by lentiretroviruses. These diseases are not a public health concern but they are important due to their economic impact.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyse the results of the serological screening for MVV and CAEV antibodies in samples collected from small ruminants farms located in 14 Romanian counties and the proximity of Bucharest city.</p> <p>METHODS: The samples were analysed by indirect ELISA, using a commercial diagnosis kit. We investigated 702 serum samples in 160 iELISA tests: 148 pools (2-5 samples/pool) and 12 individual animals.</p> <p>RESULTS: We noticed 27.50% positive samples that confirm the exposure to MVV and CAEV viruses of small ruminants, but the confirmation is requesting investigation using molecular biology tools or other serological techniques.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: A reliable picture over the SRLV infections could underlie a national program for monitoring.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LASER POLARIMETRY METHODS OF POLYCRYSTALLINE FILMS OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FOR POST-MORTEM INTERVAL ESTIMATION 2019-10-24T21:46:39+02:00 Marta Garazdiuk Viktor Bachynskіy Oleh Vanchuliak Oleksandr Garazdiuk Yuliya Sarkisova <p>Obtaining the most accurate information about an object during its evaluation is one of the most urgent tasks of current forensic medical examination. That is why the application of new technologies in forensic medical expertise becomes an integral part of the technological support of forensic examination institutions.</p> <p>Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid polycrystalline films, microscopic images, two-dimensional Stokes-polarimetry, and autofluorescent polarimetry in post-mortem interval estimation over long- and short-term time intervals.</p> <p>Material and methods. The object of the study is cerebrospinal fluid donated from 70 corpses (experimental group) and 20 living persons (control group). Methods used: two-dimensional Stokes-polarimetry, autofluorescent polarimetry.</p> <p>Results: Quantitative characteristics of the cerebrospinal fluid’s polycrystalline films statistical moments allows us to establish relations between them and the duration of the post-mortem interval at a significant time interval. However, this method does not consider the morphology of the film of the cerebrospinal fluid and its coordinate structure. In contrast to this method, fluorescence microscopy considers the biochemical composition of the biological fluid and carries information about the concentration of molecular complexes of proteins, NADH, flavins, porphyrins, etc. In the early post-mortem period, changes in the cerebrospinal fluid begin precisely with changes in the concentration of biochemical compounds, and crystalline changes are secondary, so it can be argued that this method is most effective for diagnosing the progression of the time in the first hours after death.</p> <p>Conclusions: Fluorescent laser polarimetric methods allow accurate estimation of the postmortem interval during the first hours after death.&nbsp; While, the polarization methods is more effective during the long-term periods of time, but has less precision.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INVESTIGATION OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY BY STATISTICAL METHODS AND DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS 2019-10-30T12:40:01+01:00 Galya Nikolova Georgieva-Tsaneva <p>The physiological signals that are recorded from different parts of the human body have a non-stationary nature and the tracking of their dynamics is an interesting research problem. This report examines Heart Rate Variability through the use of statistical methods of analysis that are traditionally used to study the functionality of the heart and via Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. The use of the technique of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis allows the investigation of short-term and long-term correlations in non-stationary Heart Rate Variability series. A study has been made of the changes in the functioning of the human heart, depending on the age. The study encompasses healthy individuals in three different age groups. The analysis of the obtained results shows a change in the correlated behavior of the investigated signals with an increase in age.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors FORMATION OF GRANULATION TISSUE BY DRILLING HOLES IN THE CRANIUM AFTER CHEMICAL SCALP BURNS: A CASE STUDY 2019-10-24T21:49:44+02:00 Ali Güneş Ahmet Erkılıç Murat Ali Çınar Sait Bilal <p>Although chemical burns constitute 3% to 5% of all burns, they are responsible for 30% of burn-related deaths. Chemical burns cause protein denaturation in physiological proteins by different mechanisms such as reduction, oxidation, corrosion, purification, salinization, and protoplasmic poisoning. Time is very important in the treatment of chemical burns. Chemical substances should be removed very quickly from the body. Chemical scalp burns (with bones) are a rare injury in clinical practice. In the case of scalp burns, including bones, it becomes an important problem when flab surgeries fail or cannot be performed. This study was planned to examine the formation of granulation tissue by drilling holes in the cranium after chemical scalp burns, and to determine the process of grafting and clinical practice.</p> <p>A 55-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department after a chemical burn (nitric acid). He was admitted to the burn center with 20% of the total chemical burn being in the third degree, especially on the head and chest area. The patient was treated with debridement. Since the cranial periosteum was burned, the defect was wide and there was a chemical burn for the second time, graft and flap surgeries could not be performed. Multiple holes were drilled on the skull. Approximately a month later, granulation was observed in all holes in the cranium. The granulated areas in the skull were cleaned and debrided. The defect in the cranium was closed with a split thickness graft. Approximately 15 days later, he was discharged from the hospital. Therefore, after exposure to nitric acid, more than half of the scalp was burned to the bone. After the necrotic tissues were cleaned, the skull bones appeared. Since graft and flap surgeries could not be performed, granulation was stimulated on the cranium by opening holes in the skull.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MENTAL HEALTH OF NURSING STUDENTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR PREVIOUS EDUCATION AND SATISFACTION WITH STUDYING 2019-11-27T16:16:30+01:00 Ivana Gusar Mira Klarin Marija Ljubicic <p>Introduction: Mental health is defined as the well-being in which an individual realizes his/her potential, is able to cope with normal life stress, and can be productive for the community. Compared to the general population, students under 25 years are more susceptible to various mental difficulties and disorders.</p> <p>Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the mental health of nursing students with regard to previous education and association between mental health, satisfaction with studying, age and year of study.</p> <p>Methods: The study was conducted on a sample of 76 students, by using the MHS-38 Mental Health Inventory, which examines anxiety, depression, loss of control, well-being, emotional ties, general positive affect, life satisfaction, and the mental health index. To test the differences between the results on mental health scales and students' satisfaction with respect to prior education, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Association between variables was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of student’s mental health.</p> <p>Results: The nursing students with prior vocational education had lower well-being, emotional ties, general positive affect and higher levels of depression, and showed lower life satisfaction scores than students with prior general education. In spite of that, students with prior vocational education showed higher scores in the Mental Health Inventory which indicates better mental health. The study’s satisfaction has a significant contribution to mental health, with no contribution of previous education.</p> <p>Conclusion: There is a difference in the mental health status of nursing students with regard to previous education. The mental health of nursing students is connected with age and satisfaction with studying. Further research is needed to establish a real relationship between mental health and students' satisfaction in the sense of causative consequence, and real differences in respect to the students' prior education.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MONITORING OF PATIENTS' FALLS IN HEALTHCARE FACILITIES 2019-10-24T21:51:36+02:00 Marcela Ižová Michaela Vicáňová Mária Novysedláková <p>INTRODUCTION: The issue of hospitalized patients’ falls in healthcare facilities should be one of the most essential interests of healthcare employees. Monitoring, keeping of records and the assessment of the documentation related to the occurrence of patients’ falls in a healthcare facility helps healthcare employees determine the frequency of falls. Monitoring of extraordinary events helps identify weaknesses in patient care and point out recurring issues, which influence the quality and safety of the provided care. A reduction in the number of falls in every healthcare facility requires a complex approach of healthcare employees, which includes admitting, assessing, and reducing the risks of falls.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report was to point out the occurrence of hospitalized patients’ falls in a healthcare facility.</p> <p>METHODS: The data collection was done through a survey method (unstandardized survey). The research group was composed of nurses (n=130) providing nursing care to patients in four healthcare facilities in Trebišov, Vranov nad Topľou a&nbsp;Michalovce. The average age of the nurses was 38.7 years old. The results were analyzed through absolute and relative frequency. The Chi-squared test was used as a statistical method. The obtained results were interpreted on the significance level α = 0.05. The sorting criteria included age, type of department, and level of experience.</p> <p>RESULTS: The obtained results point out that nurses use conversation and observation to assess the risk of patients’ falls. In the research sample, falls occur with an increased incidence. There is a statistically significant contrast (p = 0.02) concerning the way in which nurses in each department report falls.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: In the issue of falls, nursing documentation plays a big role because falls are documented as extraordinary events. Based on our results, we suggest using a unified, standardized tool to assess the risk of falls in healthcare facilities, as monitoring extraordinary events can influence the quality and safety of the provided nursing care.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN CYP450 ISOZYMES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IN VITRO OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF MESALAMINE USED FOR COLITIS 2019-10-24T21:52:36+02:00 Elif Kale Alaattin Şen <p>Mesalamine [5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)] is a substantial supportive agent in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly in ulcerative colitis (UC). It is well known that 5-ASA is metabolized by phase II enzymes. And most likely cytochrome P450 enzymes have an important role in this process. However, there is no information to the accuracy of this and which CYP isoforms affect this potential pathway of metabolism. In this study, it was aimed to find out whether other alternative drug metabolism pathways other than N-acetylation, are involved in 5-ASA metabolism, particularly cytochrome P450s. For this purpose, first, a colorimetric method was developed to measure the 5-ASA. Then, it was applied to determine whether mesalamine was metabolized by <em>in vitro</em> with each pure CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2D6). It has shown that 5-ASA acted as a substrate for the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isoforms. The incubation of pure CYP isoforms in the presence of prototype substrates together with 5-ASA have led to inhibition of prototype activities of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. As a consequence, this study demonstrated that the 5-ASA is both a substrate and an inhibitor for CYP3A4, a substrate for CYP2D6, and an inhibitor for CYP1A2. Thus, the prescription of mesalamine together with the drugs metabolized with these CYP isozymes could cause unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. These are the new contributions to the literature.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CENTRAL SLOVAKIA FROM THE YEAR 2000 – RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 2019-10-24T21:53:40+02:00 Tatiana Kochlanova Nina Kotlebova Tatiana Kubickova Martin Novak <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Introduction: The main group of helminthic infections in Europe includes soil-transmitted helminthiases as well as alimentary helminthiases and cestodes. Typical finds of coprological analyses in our climatic conditions include intestinal nematodes, tapeworms and intestinal protozoa.</p> <p>Objectives: The primary objective of our study was to analyse changes in the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Slovakia.</p> <p>Methods: The authors studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites in coprological samples taken from patients in Central Slovakia. Stool samples were prepared and analysed using an optical microscope with 160 – 400 x magnification.</p> <p>Results: The most prevalent types of intestinal protozoa were <em>Giardia intestinalis</em> and <em>Entamoeba coli</em>. The most widespread species of helminths was <em>Enterobius vermicularis</em>. Since 2006, the prevalence of intestinal parasites has rapidly dropped in comparison to the 90s (0.44 % versus 1.32 % of positive findings, respectively).</p> <p>Conclusion: The results show values rapidly decreasing towards zero for the prevalence of geohelminths and a significant decrease in intestinal protozoa. The authors propose possible epidemiological reasons for this sharp decrease, which points to the potential near elimination of intestinal parasites as a result of improvement in water management, waste management, personal hygiene, maintenance of public spaces as sandpits and parks.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE POST-MORTEM EVALUATION OF GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION IN BLOOD AND ITS DIAGNOSTICAL VALUE 2019-10-24T21:55:27+02:00 Gintarė Lukočiūtė Karolina Ginčienė Sigitas Chmieliauskas Sigitas Laima Jurgita Stasiūnienė Dmitrij Fomin Algimantas Jasulaitis <p>Introduction: &nbsp;Hyperglycemia is a consequence of uncontrolled diabetes and over a long period of time can lead to serious violations of the various systems of the body. In daily clinical practice, glucose level in blood and glycated hemoglobin are major and frequently used worldwide laboratory findings for the diagnosis of glucose metabolism disorders. In forensic medicine, the diagnostic value of post-mortem blood glucose levels is questionable because of its significant and rapid variation after death. Our research was aimed to analyse glucose concentration in blood after death and to estimate its diagnostic value.</p> <p>Methods: Data analysis of the State Forensic Medicine Service (SFMS) of Vilnius region of sudden death cases was performed. 238 autopsy findings were analysed. A retrospective analysis was performed using the R commander program.</p> <p>Results: The analysis included 238 individuals, 161 (67.6%) were men and 77 (32.4%) women. Mean age was 52.28 ± 15.45 yeras. Mean&nbsp; alcohol level in blood was 2.257 ± 1.482 g/L. Mean post-mortem glucose concentration in blood was 6.716 ± 5.800 mmol/l. The lowest glucose concentration was 0.600 mmol/l and the highest - 33.300 mmol/l. There were no significant glycemia level difference between men and women (p = 0.279). In 6 cases, glucose concentrations were compared before and after death. The difference in blood glucose was insignificant (p = 0.90). There was no strong correlation between ethyl alcohol and glucose concentration (r = 0.037, p = 0.667). There was a weak correlation between age and blood glucose concentration (r = 0.03, p = 0.639).</p> <p>Conclusions: According to SFMS autopsy data, post-mortem glucose levels remain within the normal values. Evaluation of glucose after death remains a valuable diagnostic criterion for sudden death due to hyperglycaemia, when the hyperglycaemic episode is first and fatal to the subject.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STUDY OF LIFE QUALITY AND TREATMENT SATISFACTION OF ROMANIAN DIABETIC PATIENTS 2019-10-26T16:36:12+02:00 Andrei Cătălin Muntean Claudiu Morgovan Smaranda Cosma Smaranda Cosma Anca Butucă Anca Maria Juncan Luca Liviu Rus Andreea Loredana Vonica Felicia Gabriela Gligor Steliana Ghibu <p>In Romania, antidiabetic medication is free, based on a program of the Ministry of Public Health: “Treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus”. Since October 1, 2006, antidiabetic drugs have been delivered through open circuit pharmacies in contractual relationship with the National Health Insurance House, after four years of centralized delivery through hospital pharmacies.</p> <p>Objectives: This study aims to describe the influences of the diabetes treatment regarding patients’ quality of life and their satisfaction.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in pharmacies. The study includes 477 patients with diabetes mellitus from Cluj County, Romania. The interviewing method was used on a questionnaire base. The participants included in the study admitted to participate in May-June, 2016.</p> <p>The questionnaire was systematically developed following comprehensive literature review and structured according to 3 main fields: 1) patient demographics; 2) diabetes patient treatment and 3) glycaemia control and patient satisfaction.</p> <p>Results: The research performed in two months showed that 78% of the respondents used oral antidiabetics for treatment, more than 19% of the inquired patients reached normal glycaemia values following antidiabetic treatment, and about 82% of patients were satisfied with the current system of acquisition of antidiabetic drugs.</p> <p>Conclusions: The treatment with antidiabetic drugs maintains a relatively good health status. Also, the life expectancy of diabetic patients has increased over the past period.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors VARIABILITY OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND OBESITY 2019-10-26T16:36:09+02:00 Yuriy Nechitaylo Oleksandr Buriak Olesya Pidmurniak Nataliya Kovtyuk Tatiana Fomina <p>INTRODUCTION: The activity of the cardiovascular system has a clear to the circadian rhythms of a child's body. Daily fluctuations in blood pressure in normal conditions and in pathology is a physiological phenomenon which can play a significant role in developing arterial hypertension and even in the occurrence of fatal cardiovascular states such as heart attacks, strokes, and sudden cardiac arrest activities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is recognized as a necessary instrumental investigation for diagnosis and management of patients with arterial hypertension and especially in children from high risk groups such as diabetics and obesity it may be even more important for hypertension diagnostics than in adults.</p> <p>AIM: The objective of the study was to analyze the features of circadian oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate variability in children with diabetes mellitus and hypothalamic syndrome with obesity.</p> <p>METHODS: Research included 76 children aged 10 to 18 years: 52 children with endocrine pathology (diabetes and obesity) and 24 clinically healthy persons. The peculiarities of nutrition, sleep, and the definition of the chronotype using the Horn-Ostberg questionnaire were carried out. The functional state of the cardiovascular systems was determined by single office measurement and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.</p> <p>FINDINGS AND RESULTS: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed a number of differences between the groups of children. In diabetic patients, daytime systolic blood pressure was higher with increased variability, while the night blood pressure was significantly lower and with significantly less variability, compared to other groups. Attention is drawn to the higher level of diastolic blood pressure and lower variability at night in obese children.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Daily fluctuations of arterial pressure in children with diabetes and obesity differ from healthy persons depending on the type of disease and could be regarded as result of circadian biorhythms disruption. In obese persons it appears in the form of nocturnal SBP and DBP elevation but with index of variability compared to the control group. In diabetic children the circadian BP rhythms deviations appear in form of SBP elevation during the day with higher index of its variability. Their BP changes were associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT OF RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SALMONELLA SPP. BY MALDI-TOF MS 2019-10-26T16:36:07+02:00 Martin Novak Tatiana Kochlanova Anna Tvrda Nina Kotlebova <p>Introduction: Infections caused by <em>Salmonella</em> are an ongoing worldwide public health problem, often found as a source of nosocomial infections, which cause significant socio-economic burdens. <em>Salmonella</em> is a major food-borne pathogen causing primarily gastrointestinal diseases as well as other localized and systemic infections and extraintestinal complications. MALDI-TOF MS is a new method used by clinical laboratories for rapid, reliable, cost-effective and user-friendly diagnosis of many medical important bacteria of public health interest. The use of this technique improves early identification of genus <em>Salmonella</em> on the species, subspecies and even serovar level, which has a positive impact on public health.</p> <p>Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of epidemiologically important <em>Salmonella</em> serovars. Based on the latest knowledge about specific biomarker molecules the possibility to identify <em>Salmonella enterica</em> subsp. <em>enterica</em> serovar Enteritidis was verified, which is one of the most common serovars present in Europe associated with gastrointestinal diseases. For serovar Enteritidis a unique mass peak at m/z 6,036 was used.</p> <p>Methods: 140 clinical <em>Salmonella</em> isolates were collected from January to October 2017. Serotyping of <em>Salmonella</em> species, subspecies and serovars was performed by slide agglutination technique: 139 isolates were identified as <em>Salmonella enterica</em> subsp. <em>enterica</em> and one isolate as <em>Salmonella enterica</em> subsp. <em>diarizonae</em> (IIIb). From 139 isolates of <em>Salmonella enterica</em> subsp. <em>enterica</em> the following serovars were detected: 108 Enteritidis, 12 Typhimurium, 6 Infantis, 3 Agona, 3 Derby, 7 others. All isolates were identified also by MALDI-TOF MS as <em>Salmonella</em> spp. For all isolates a unique mass peak at m/z 6.036 was used, which is considered to be relevant for serovar Enteritidis according to the most recent known data.</p> <p>Results: 103 isolates from a total of 108 slide agglutination positive isolates for serovar Enteritidis showed a specific mass signal at&nbsp; m/z 6,036 (+/-). 5 isolates did not contain this specific protein. After repeated analysis from re-culture, the specific protein was found also in the remaining 5 isolates. 32 serovars other than Enteritidis did not contain this specific biomarker molecule.</p> <p>Conclusion: We can confirm that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and reliable method to identify of the most common serovar <em>Salmonella </em>Enteritidis based on the diagnostic marker peak at m/z 6,036 identified by recent studies.&nbsp; This unique mass signal showed 100% specificity and 95% sensitivity for Enteritidis serovar in our study. We can conclude that the determination of this frequently present serovar is significantly accelerated by MALDI-TOF MS. The rapid and reliable diagnosis is important for the early treatment and prevention of the spread of salmonellosis with a positive impact on public health.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors VARIATION OF COMORBIDITIES IN ROMANIA AT THE LAU2 LEVEL, A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS 2019-10-26T16:36:05+02:00 Adrian Pana Bogdan-Vasile Ileanu <p>Introduction: Romania is still lagging behind in regard to main health indicators when compared to average values of European Union countries with a disproportionate share of disability due mainly to chronic diseases. There are tools available to quantify the negative health outcomes due to comorbidities, and among them the Elixhauser Index was found to be the best to predict health care utilization and expenditures.</p> <p>Objective: To measure the extent of comorbidities at the LAU2 level using the Elixhauser Index.</p> <p>Methods: All relevant comorbidities at the local level were summed-up using the Elixhauser index. This was followed with standardization by population number and then by 10-year age group. Due to large oscillation from one year to another during the 2014-2016 period, the geometrical mean was computed, then few measures of the variation such as decile ratio and variation coefficient were also computed.</p> <p>Results: High variability of comorbidities is observed at the local level (LAU2). Clusters of comorbidities concentration are found near medical university centers and localities in non-MUC districts located at the furthest distance from the county residential center.</p> <p>Conclusions: Several factors such as proximity to referral hospitals, increased accessibility to these hospitals due to low control at primary healthcare levels, availability of diagnostic technologies and different diagnostic coding patterns, as well as isolation and unavailability of primary health care services are listed as possible factors that can explain these results.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ROLE OF HYPERCORTISOLEMIA IN PROGRESSION OF THE COMORBID COURSE OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE, DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 AND ANEMIA 2019-10-26T16:36:03+02:00 Nataliia Pavliukovych Oleksandr Pavliukovych Oleksandr Buriak Tamara Kopchuk Volodymyr Vivsyannuk <p>INTRODUCTION: Hyperactivation of stress-limiting mechanisms of the organism is a unique physiological response of the human being to chronic hypoxia of different origins.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: Investigation of dynamics of cortisol synthesis changes in patients with coronary artery disease with comorbid diabetes mellitus type 2 and anemic syndrome in patients of older age groups.</p> <p>METHODS: Blood cortisol level was measured in 40 old and senile coronary artery disease patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus type 2 and anemic syndrome of different degrees of severity. The control group consisted of 12 patients with coronary artery disease without comorbidities that were not significantly different through gender and age from the patients of the research groups. Possible effects of telmisartan on the degree of chronic hypoxia were also investigated.</p> <p>RESULTS: In patients of old and senile age with coronary artery disease &nbsp;and comorbid anemic syndrome, same as in case of coronary artery disease and anemic syndrome on the background of diabetes mellitus type 2, activation of the cortisol synthesis is observed, likely in response to hypoxia as a stress factor in anemia. The degree of severity of the detected changes was different depending on the degree of anemia severity. There was no normalization of cortisol content in blood in any of the major experimental groups regardless the prescribed treatment with ACE inhibitors or telmisartan.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coronary artery disease, same as in the case of a comorbid course of coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus type 2, an increase of cortisol secretion in response to anemic hypoxia was observed. As the degree of severity of the anemic syndrome progressed, gradual decreasing of cortisol blood level was detected. Reduction of the intensity of stress-limiting systems in the organism by telmisartan prescription may help to eliminate the adverse effects of hypercortisolemia on the progression of coronary artery disease, especially on the background of comorbid diabetes mellitus type 2 and anemia.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors TRAUMATIC HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO A STORM: AN OBSERVATIONAL CASE-STUDY ON PATIENTS RECEIVED AT THE COUNTY EMERGENCY CLINICAL HOSPITAL FROM TIMISOARA 2019-10-26T16:36:02+02:00 Cristina Petrescu Mihai Grecu Silvia Barbu Marius Craina <p>Objective: The aim of the performed study was to investigate the traumatic health effects in patients received at the emergency service due to a storm event that happened on the 17th of September 2017 in Timisoara.</p> <p>Material of study consisted of a sample of 75 patients (62.67% males, 37.33% females) who came to the emergency service of the County Hospital with traumatic health effects.</p> <p>The method was an observational case-study with an investigation of traumatic health effects.</p> <p>Results: Traumatic health effects due to the storm were caused by patients falling (51.78% of diagnostics: fractures, contusions, sprains) and by being hit by flying objects (42.85% of diagnostics: craniocerebral traumatisms and contusive wounds). The patients were either sent home (54.66%), admitted (25.34%) and hospitalized (13.33% more than 10 days) or transferred (12%).&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusion: Traumatic health effects due to the storm were severe and involved substantial recovery time and considerable expense of resources.&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RESISTANCE TO ANTIPLATELET DRUGS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE 2019-10-26T16:36:00+02:00 Elina Pucite Arina Novasa Renija Ievina Tatjana Muravska Evija Miglane Andrejs Millers <p>INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases and stroke are steadily the leading causes of death in Latvia. Therefore, the greatest efforts should be given to recognize associative factors which may be modifiable to decrease the burden of ischemic events.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance and its associated risk factors in patients with acute cerebrovascular events.</p> <p>METHODS: The prospective, descriptive study included 204 patients. Patients were considered biochemical resistant to aspirin if platelet aggregation was ≥550 ARU, whereas biochemical clopidogrel resistance was defined when platelet inhibition was &gt;230 PRU.</p> <p>RESULTS: Biochemical aspirin resistance was found in 27 (13%) patients, whereas clopidogrel resistance - in 44 (22%) patients. Five patients (2%) had resistance to both antiplatelet drugs. In the analysis of blood parameters, none were associated with aspirin resistance, except the level of triglycerides which were lower in the aspirin resistance group (p=0.001; r=0.26).&nbsp; In the analysis of clopidogrel sensitivity there was a difference in diabetes prevalence where it was more frequent in the clopidogrel resistance group (15.6% vs. 40.9%; p=0.001; r=0.255). Patients with clopidogrel resistance had higher levels of triglycerides 1.7 (1.3-2.6) than patients grouped as sensitive 1.4 ((1.1-2.0), p=0.033; r=0.16).</p> <p>CONCLUSION:&nbsp; Biochemical aspirin and clopidogrel resistance are quite common in patients with cerebrovascular diseases in Latvia.&nbsp; Our study found that patients with diabetes and elevated glycosylated hemoglobin level were more prone to clopidogrel biochemical resistance. However, the association between aspirin resistance and clinical, laboratory data remains inconclusive.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RENOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MELATONIN IN CONDITIONS OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AND ALTERED PINEAL GLAND ACTIVITY 2019-10-26T16:35:58+02:00 Tetiana Shchudrova Yevheniia Dudka Olena Korotun Tetiana Bilous Fedir Herman Igor Zamorskii <p>INTRODUCTION: Melatonin is a promising therapeutic agent due to its multiple beneficial effects, wide availability and relatively high safety. As melatonin acts as a chronobiotic agent, its adequate production by the pineal gland allows for adaptation to environmental changes, while disturbances in melatonin secretion are associated with health disorders. The renoprotective effect of exogenous melatonin was established on different experimental models of acute kidney injury (AKI), while the influence of the altered pineal gland activity on the efficacy of melatonin treatment has not been investigated.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study the renoprotective potential of melatonin in conditions of aminoglycoside-induced AKI against the background of pineal hypo- and hyperfunction.</p> <p>METHODS: Nonlinear mature white rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups. Animals from the I (Control), and II (AKI) group were kept under the natural light regimen. Pineal hypofunction was simulated in rats from the III group by maintenance under conditions of constant light at 500 lux (24.00 light : 0.00 darkness) for 7 days. Pineal hyperfunction was simulated in rats from the IV group by maintenance under conditions of constant darkness (0.00 light : 24.00 darkness). Toxic AKI (II-IV groups) was induced by daily administration of gentamicin at a dose of 80 mg/kg for 6 days. Animals from the III-IV groups were injected daily with melatonin at a dose of 5 mg/kg. 24 h after the last injection biochemical and histological examination was performed. For the statistical analysis SPSS 17.0 software was used.</p> <p>RESULTS: Nephrotoxicity of gentamicin caused significant (p&lt;0.05) functional changes and structural alterations to the rat kidneys. Treatment with melatonin in conditions of gentamicin-induced kidney injury significantly limited the degree of damage to renal tissue and prevented a critical reduction in kidney function, confirming a protective effect of melatonin. At the same time, significant (p&lt;0.05) differences between the indices of the III and IV group allow us to state, that treatment with exogenous melatonin on the background of endogenous melatonin deficiency was less effective in comparison to the administration of melatonin in conditions of pineal hyperfunction.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Melatonin ameliorates gentamicin-induced kidney injury by the limitation of histopathological changes in kidney tissue and the preservation of kidney function. Pre-existing deficiency of endogenous melatonin decreases the resistance of kidneys to the damaging action of the toxin and lessens the protective effect of the exogenous melatonin. Alternatively, in rats with increased pineal gland activity and melatonin production, co-treatment with exogenous melatonin more effectively protects the kidney from gentamicin-induced structural and functional changes and prevents the development of renal failure.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS OF SUDDEN DEATH DUE TO PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 2019-10-26T16:35:56+02:00 Rokas Šimakauskas Martinas Baltuonis Sigitas Laima Sigitas Chmieliauskas Dmitrij Fomin Algimantas Jasulaitis Jurgita Stasiūnienė <p>Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is not an uncommon cause of sudden, unexpected death. Autopsy is the gold standard for cause of death determination in cases of suspected PTE. Mortality rates due to PTE are not estimated accurately.</p> <p>Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze distribution patterns and risk factors of sudden deaths due to PTE.</p> <p>Methods. Retrospective analysis of Lithuanian State Forensic Medicine Service autopsy data, period 2014-2018. A total of 4533 cases were reviewed; 80 cases met the criteria of immediate cause of death being PTE and were included in the study. PTE epidemiology, risk factors, clinical and pathoanatomical characteristics were described by reviewing scientific literature and statistical databases.</p> <p>Results. PTE as the cause of sudden death was diagnosed in 37(46.25%) men and 43(53.75%) women. Median age at the time of death was 62.8±17.2 years. Death occurred in hospital in 21(26.25%) cases. Trauma was the underlying cause of PTE in 11(13.75%) cases; 9(81.8%) patients were admitted to hospital after a traumatic event. Cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 70(87.5%) autopsies. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was 4.08±2.64 cm in men and 5.35±2.69 cm in women. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was confirmed upon microscopic examination in all cases, being the underlying cause of death in 67(83.75%) cases.</p> <p>Conclusion. Sudden death due to PTE usually occurs at an older age and in absence of medical care. PTE is common after sustaining severe traumatic injuries which, when not immediately lethal, are managed in hospital. Cardiac hypertrophy and obesity may increase risk of death due to PTE. Undiagnosed and untreated DVT is often the underlying cause of sudden death due to PTE.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors COSMETICS USAGE HABITS AND RELATED SIDE EFFECTS AMONG FEMALES: LITHUANIAN CASE 2019-11-27T16:17:10+01:00 Gražina Šniepienė Judita Jonuševičienė <p>Background. Nowadays, it is generally recognized that physical appearance is important, women are particularly interested in their aesthetic appearance and the use of various cosmetic products. The long-term usage habits of cosmetic products have influenced not only the condition of the skin and hair but also on human health.</p> <p>The aim of the survey was to investigate cosmetics use habits and related side effects among females.</p> <p>Methods: A quantitative survey was performed; an original questionnaire based on scientific resources was used, used data collection method - a written survey. Survey sample – 336 Lithuanian women. Data analysis was performed using the social research statistics program SPSS 25.0. Percentage frequencies were calculated for ordinal variables - averages and standard deviations. The Pearson’s Chi-Square test and the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to detect statistically significant differences. The significance level selected was p &lt;0.05.</p> <p>Results. The survey revealed the prevalence and frequency of the use of cosmetic products by women, as well as the choice criteria for selecting cosmetic products. The side effects related to the use of cosmetics experienced by women are investigated as well as some practices and habits regarding the use of cosmetics.</p> <p>Conclusions. The study shows that the choice criteria of cosmetic products differ among separate women age groups. The older women are more concerned about the composition of the products, their naturalness, and the manufacturer, while the price is less important. Most commonly used are personal hygiene products including deodorants and perfumers. The older women use less cosmetic products (p &lt;0.05) than the younger ones. The majority of women have experienced side effects related to the use of cosmetics. The study shows that the occurrence of side effects does not depend on the number of products used. However, they are related to the use habits: women who experience side effects more often (p &lt;0.05) use expired cosmetic products. In addition, women with side effects are less likely to use cosmetic testers. &nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors OUR EXPERIENCE IN CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME THERAPEUTIC EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION 2019-10-26T16:35:53+02:00 Jolanta Umure Ināra Logina Marija Mihailova <p>Objectives: Analyze the literature data on the incidence and manifestation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), as well as the pathogenesis and treatment options. Perform a specially designed, validated test - Pain Detection. Evaluate the objective state of patients with CTS - sensory impairment, compression test. Assess patients’ neurologic and neurophysiologic data before and after the blockade and evaluate its effectiveness. Perform a specially designed, validated test - Patients` Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC) one month after corticosteroid injection (CSI).Methods and Materials: The study includes an analysis of 55 arms of patients of different age with mild and moderate CTS who came for a neurological examination at the Neurology Outpatient Department of the Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital during the period of 01.08.2018 – 01.01.2019. All patients were analyzed clinically and neurophysiologically before CSI and one month after CSI. A Pain Detect scale, PGIC scale, compression tests and sensory tests were used for the evaluation of clinical symptom. A median nerve sensory and motor nerve conduction study was performed.Results: According to the Pain Detect scale, 60% of patients showed neuropathic pain before CSI, and 78% of patients presented clinical effectiveness after CSI. 98% of patients present clinical effectiveness after CSI in the PGIC scale. 85% of patients had improvement in neurophysiological studies – motor distal latency decreased after CSI. Before CSI, the average motor distal latency was 5.7ms (range 4.5-12.9ms SD±1.5), which was on average 130% from the maximal norm (range 102- 293 SD±36). After the CSI, the average motor distal latency was 5.2ms (range 3.8-10.7ms SD±1.3), which was on average 120% from the maximal norm (range 88-243 SD±30). We didn’t find any significant correlation between the improvement of the patient's clinical condition and the improvement of electrophysiological outcomes.Conclusions: The study concludes that the Pain Detect sensitivity for neuropathic pain evaluation of patients with CTS is 60%. Patients show clinical and neurophysiological improvement after CSI, but there is no correlation between neurophysiological and clinical improvement. The study concludes that the PGIC scale can be used to quickly assess the effectiveness of therapy.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SUICIDES IN LITHUANIA: RATES, METHODS AND DISTRIBUTION BY AGE, GENDER AND SETTLEMENT, 2012-2016 2019-10-26T16:35:51+02:00 Diana Vasiljevaitė Jurgita Stasiūnienė Sigitas Laima Sigitas Chmieliauskas Dmitrij Fomin Algimantas Jasulaitis <p>INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organisation regarding suicide rate, Lithuania was on the top in 2016 with 31.9 suicide events per 100 000 people of the population. This research was aimed at analysing the situation including methods of suicide and its distribution between different age, gender and settlement groups in Lithuania.</p> <p>METHODS: 4610 particular suicide cases were found and analysed from the given retrospectively collected data by the Hygiene Institute’s Register of Death Causes in Lithuania from 2012 till 2016. These cases have been categorised into age (10-19 years old, 20-69 years old and &gt;70 years old), gender and settlement groups. Chi-squared and Fisher tests were used to analyse the associations between the suicide methods used, sex, as well as age. A significance level of p&lt;0.05 was used.</p> <p>RESULTS: In total, 4610 suicide cases were registered in Lithuania in 2012-2016. People aged 20-69 years had the biggest proportion with 80%, followed by 16% for people older than 70 and 4% people aged 10-19. 82% of all cases were men. The most common method of suicides in all age groups was hanging, self-strangulation and self-suffocation; 92%. There is no statistical significant difference in methods used by the 10-19 years old group and above 20 years of age (20-70+).<br>A difference was found between the groups under 70 years and above 70 years old. Moreover, the following difference was found between their genders (p=0.0002). In terms of using drugs and biological substances, women (54.24%) are more likely to commit suicide through these means than men in all age groups, while 100% of suicide methods by gas, steam or solvents were used by men. Though slightly more suicides were registered in cities, there was no statistically significant difference between people living in cities and in villages.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that incidences of suicides are gradually decreasing every year, the situation is not yet satisfactory. The pattern almost has not changed for years – the most inclinable person to commit suicide is a 50-59 years old man living in a city and the most used method is still hanging.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ADVERSE EFFECTS OF GONADOTROPINS USED IN INFERTILITY TREATMENT 2019-10-26T16:35:49+02:00 Bogdan Ioan Vintilă Anca Butucă Claudiu Morgovan Andreea Loredana Vonica Luca Liviu Rus Andrei Cătălin Muntean Anca Maria Juncan Felicia Gabriela Gligor <p>Introduction: Infertility represents a problem for more and more couples all over the world, including in Romania. Thus, more and more women need to resort to drugs to treat infertility, treatments which are not without adverse reactions (Boivin et al., 2007). Modern therapy brings significant benefits in the treatment of infertility. Despite all the benefits, the controlled ovarian stimulation treatment does not lack the possibility of adverse reactions to the administered drugs.</p> <p>Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the potential adverse reactions experienced by patients during the treatment with gonadotropins followed by assisted conception</p> <p>Methods: A study was done based on a questionnaire which included the adverse reactions comprised in the SmPCs (Summaries of Product Characteristics) of the original drugs, and also based on the adverse reactions frequently reported in clinical studies. The questionnaire was distributed in the online environment, from May 2018 to July 2018, in Romania, to patients to whom at least one of the analysed gonadotropins (corifollitropin alpha, follitropin alpha, follitropin beta, follitropin alpha/follitropin beta, menotropin, urofollitropin) was administered during the controlled ovarian stimulation treatment, in the routine practice of assisted human reproduction technology.</p> <p>Results: The results show that a total number of 319 events suspected of being adverse reactions was reported, grouped on the highest MedDRA level, SOC (system – organ- class), with an average of 8.18 adverse reactions (AR)/patient.</p> <p>Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate the fact the disorders appeared after drug administration in the controlled ovarian stimulation treatment in the context of the routine practice of assisted human reproduction technology, were considered adverse reactions by the patients.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors STUDENTS ATTITUDE TOWARDS MEDICAL ETHICS EDUCATION 2019-10-26T16:35:47+02:00 Alexandrina Vodenitcharova Nikoleta Leventi Kristina Popova <p>Medical ethics (ME) and bioethics education are integrated in many medical schools, as a discipline, which aims to help future doctors to recognize ethical issues in healthcare and develop ethical decision-making skills. The main purpose of this paper was to explore students’ attitude towards medical ethics and bioethics, as a course of their education curriculum in the Medical University of Sofia in Bulgaria. The goal was to find out students expectations for the contribution of the acquired knowledge to reflect upon the ethical dimensions and human rights considerations of medicine, healthcare and science after the end of their ME course. A paper questionnaire was distributed to medical students with a letter indicating the purpose of the study. All the students were anonymous and voluntarily participated in the survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 344 medical students. According to the results, the majority (94%) of the participants are familiar with the principles of medical ethics and bioethics and supports (86%) the necessity of studying Medical ethics. Most of the students (87%) think that medical ethics education will help them in their future work and believe (86%) that this course will improve their professionalism, while their opinion (70%) is that medical ethics will lead to effectively co-working with other medical professionals.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE USE OF FORENSIC CHEMISTRY METHODS IN THE DETERMINATION OF COUNTERFEIT DRUGS 2019-10-26T16:35:45+02:00 Elena Welchinska Volodymyr Velchynskyi <p>The problem of illegal circulation of drugs, their support and falsification are relevant not only in Ukraine. Experts believe that about 10% of the global medicinal drug market is fake and fraud. Counterfeit drugs may contain the active ingredient with its exact content as well as non-relevant ingredients, may not contain the active ingredient at all or may contain unrefined ingredients. In any case, this leads to a lack of therapeutic effect in the treatment, poisoning and, even, death of patients. As a result of our research, the presence of highly dangerous and toxic components in the composition of drugs (antifreeze, tar, arsenic, mercury and others) was established. In case of poisoning or death of a patient after the use of a counterfeit medicinal drug, an examination is carried out, and the presence of the active and additional ingredients of the drug is confirmed by chemical toxicological analysis. Chemical-toxicological analysis is a part of the science "Forensic chemistry" and allows us to confirm the presence of the drug in the body, the purity of the drug, the presence of the active ingredient of the drug, and therefore allows us to confirm the fact of poisoning or death of a person under the action of a chemical substance (for example, a falsified drug).</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC DATA 2019-11-05T17:17:48+01:00 Evgeniya Gospodinova <p>INTRODUCTION: One of the most widely used methods for studying the bioelectric activity of the heart is the electrocardiogram (ECG). An important diagnostic parameter that can be determined by the ECG is heart rate variability (HRV), which takes into account the difference between successive strokes of the heart. Changing HRV can be an indicator of a number of disease states, such as low HRV levels can show poor health that is not only associated with cardiovascular disease but also with other diseases such as internal, nervous, mental, and other disorders.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES:&nbsp; The subject of this article is the study of 24-hour ECG signals by applying non-linear graphical methods for HRV analysis. The non-linear graphical methods aim at obtaining graphical and quantitative information on the cardiovascular status of the study groups to complement the information obtained from traditional linear methods of analysis.</p> <p>METHODS: For the non-linear analysis of HRV, graphical methods were used: Poincaré plot and Recurrence plot were used, which are suitable for the examination of electrocardiographic signals. Two groups of people were investigated: 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with arrhythmia.</p> <p>RESULTS: Based on the nonlinear analysis of RR time series, the graphs of a healthy subject and a patient with arrhythmia were constructed using the Poincare plot. The graph of the healthy subject has the shape of a comet, while the graph of the patient with arrhythmia has the shape of a fan. The quantitative characteristics of patients with arrhythmia significantly change compared to the healthy subjects. The SD1 (p &lt;0.003) and SD2 (p &lt;0.0001) values decreased in patients with arrhythmia compared to the healthy controls. This reduction leads to reduction of the areas of the ellipse in the patients with arryhthmia. The ratio of SD1/SD2 (p &lt;0.05) is lower for the healthy controls. The graphs obtained by the Recurrence plot of the investigated signals differ in healthy subjects and in patients with arrhythmia. For a healthy subject, the graph has a diagonal line and fewer squares showing a higher HRV. The graph of a patient with arrhythmia contains more squares, indicating periodicity in the investigated signal. The Recurrence Quantification Analysis showed that the values of the investigated parameters DET% (p &lt;0.0001), REC% (p &lt;0.0001) and ENTR (p &lt;0.001) in patients with arrhythmia are increased.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS:&nbsp; The importance of the graphical nonlinear methods used for the analysis of HRV consists in forming a parametric and graphical assessment of the patient's health status.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CARDIAC DATA OBTAINED THROUGH HOLTER MONITORING IN REAL LIVING CONDITIONS 2019-10-30T12:39:13+01:00 Galya Nikolova Georgieva-Tsaneva <p>The paper presents frequency methods for estimating the variability of intervals between individual heart beats in Electrocardiogram. This parameter is known in the scientific literature as the Heart Rate Variability and with this method it is possible to make predictions about human health. Three frequency ranges have been studied: Very Low Frequency, Low Frequency, and High Frequency. The study in this paper was based on real cardiological data obtained from 33 patients suffering from heart fibrillations and 29 healthy individuals. The investigated records are obtained through a Holter monitoring of studied individuals in real life conditions. The obtained results show significantly lower values ​​of the tested spectral parameters in the diseased individuals compared to the healthy controls. The accomplished study shows the effective applicability of the spectral methods of Heart Rate Variability analysis and the possibility of differentiation by the spectral parameters of the patients from healthy individuals.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors HUMAN AS A PHYSIOLOGICAL SOURCE OF DETERIORATION OF THE AIR QUALITY AND COMFORT CONDITIONS INDOORS 2019-10-26T16:35:43+02:00 Radostina A. Angelova Peter Stankov Detelin Markov Rositsa Velichkova Iskra Simova <p>It is imperative a model be developed that can assess the difference between the amount of CO<sub>2, </sub>generated within the human body and the amount of CO<sub>2</sub> that is ejected by the body as a function of indoor air parameters. This model would allow the assessment of the amount of the CO<sub>2</sub> which is not ejected by the body through exhalation and which have to be neutralized and ejected by the body through other mechanisms or have to be accumulated in the body depots. Currently, there is no experimental data that allows for predicting the amount of CO<sub>2,</sub> ejected through the blood gas exchange in the lungs as a function of CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in the inhaled air. Our study, conducted within the AIRMEN project, aims to research the phenomenology of the human body as a physiological source of the deterioration of both the indoor environment and conditions of comfort and in particular on the indoor air quality. It is based on an experimental investigation of the external result from the human body metabolism and gas exchange in the lungs. The results of this study make it possible to logically define the limits of the permissible CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in the indoor air for the different air quality categories indoors.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors IMPACT OF PHYSICAL MUTAGENS ON THE MALE GAMETOPHYTE OF THE TEA PLANT FOR ITS FURTHER USE IN HYBRIDIZATION 2019-10-26T16:35:41+02:00 Davit Baratashvili Nino Lomtatidze Guguli Dumbadze Neli Khalvashi Nino Kedelidze <p>The migration of the radioisotopes - P<sup>32</sup> and S<sup>35</sup> from the soil to the tea plant (flowers) was studied. It is shown that their accumulation intensity in pollen sacs increases in proportion to the dose and reaches its maximum in the P<sup>32</sup> variant after using a 8.0 MBq / ml dose. The migration intensity was the lowest in the 2.0 MBq / ml variant (0.14-0.223 MBq / 100 mg). It is estimated that P<sup>32</sup> and S<sup>35</sup> have significantly affected the vitality of tea plant pollens through the anomalies of their development. After using 2.0 and 4.0 MBq / ml doses, the vitality of the pollen is reduced in proportion to the dose and the development anomalies increase. Particulalry, the viability of pollen decrease compared to the control group, but the frequency and range of development anomalies increases. These include the slow development of the plant or the acceleration of the development of the primary nucleus, polyspermia, undeveloped pollen tube, etc. The use of processed P<sup>32</sup> and S<sup>35</sup> tea pollens in hybridization significantly increases the frequency of new formations and results in variability in the domination of signs. &nbsp;Among the new formations include the induction of haploids and triploids.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESS OF CITRUS JUICES ON THEIR QUALITY 2019-10-26T16:35:38+02:00 Irina Bejanidze Tina Kharebava Nunu Nakashidze Lamzira Komcelidze Nazi Davitadze <p>Fresh fruit juices contain organic acids and mineral substances (potassium, calcium, iron, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, molybdenum, boron, iodine), and their salts, large amounts of fiber, pectin and enzymes - complex substances, that contribute to the food processing and absorption of nutritional elements. Natural citrus juices contain essential vitamins and nutrients for the human body. Therefore, they represent a good opportunity for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. With the vitamins, taken through the juice, the human body becomes more resistant to viruses and infections, stressful situations and intense physical stress, and the body’s metabolism becomes normalized. Beverages, prepared from juices improve intestinal motility and thus contribute to improving the allocation of toxic substances and slags from the organism.</p> <p>The purpose of this work is the development of technological parameters of the ultrafiltration process to obtain natural juices which are sterile, resistant to precipitation and turbidity, and have a long shelf life. This paper examines the performance of the ultrafiltration process of citrus juices (lemon, tangerine, orange) and its dependence on the pressure and duration of the process, type and porosity of the membrane, the nature of the juice, and acidity. The juice composition was studied before and after ultrafiltration. It was established, that the productivity of the ultrafiltration process depends on: the duration of the process and this dependence is determined by the nature of the process: membrane type, in particular, filtration material and pressure: with an increase in membrane porosity and pressure, the productivity of the process, the volume of filtered juice, filtering speed and duration increases; the productivity of the ultrafiltration process, during the filtration both in dynamic and static mode, depends on the type and consistency of the juice: it increases with the increase of juice acidity. It was established: the general acidity (1.17%), density (1.038 g/cm<sup>3</sup>), the content of dry substances (9.9%), sugars (7.8%), including invert (7.2%), ash ( 0.26%), and vitamin C ( 20mg/ 100gr.), do not change in the course of ultrafiltration of tangerine juice. The viscosity, the content of carotenoids, cellulose and pectin decreases. The amino-acid structure practically does not change; hollow fibers detain only 6 - 8% of proteins and amino acids. For obtaining high-quality citrus juices, ultrafiltration should be carried out at a pressure 0.2MPa, on hollow fiber, in a dynamic, circulating mode.</p> <p>The juices obtained by ultrafiltration on hollow fibers (AP-2.0) are sterile, resistant to precipitation and turbidity, have significantly increased shelf lives, and they retain their organoleptic properties and nutritional values.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INFLUENСE OF SEASONAL FACTOR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PERSIMMON 2019-10-26T16:35:35+02:00 Irina Bejanidze Tina Kharebava Nargiz Alasania Nato Didmanidze Nazi Davitadze <p>Persimmon is one of the most popular and favorite fruits not only in Georgia, but also in other countries. People love it for its unique specific taste and high nutritional value. There are more than 500 types of persimmon, properties and tastes which depend on the persimmon growing conditions.</p> <p>The purpose of this project was to study the persimmon fruit chemical composition, the regularity in the quantity changes of the bioactive substances and technical-economical persimmon parameters during its storage and technological processing; to develop a highly profitable and efficient composite production technology for a new assortment of products and high quality beverages. Organoleptic and chemical tests of 12 persimmon fruit varieties were made. The content and composition of sugars, polyphenols, pectin, and tanning substances, were defined; and the relation of these parameters to the fruit maturity degree, the dynamics of their change in the ripening and storage process were determined. In addition, we determined the content of sugars ( inverted, total, saccharose), tanning substances (free, total), polyphenols and nitrogen through a spectrophotometric method, dry solids through a refractometric method, pectin (total, soluble, protopectin) and acidity through a potentiometric method, and cellulose through a chlorite method. The feasibility of the persimmon fruit industrial processing was established. Persimmon fruit of Khachia and Khiakume varieties were proved to be the best raw material for the industrial production of a fruit alcohol and beverages. It should be noted here that persimmon fruit must be harvested in November when they have a dark orange colouring and their dry solids content reaches 18%, inverted sugars make up 16-16.5%, and the acidity is 0.12%. For concentrate production, persimmon must be harvested in October when the fruit are yellow and their tanning and colouring substances reach 1.24%, and pectin substances make up 0.77%. The fruit sugars are glucose and fructose, generally in equal quantities. Tanning substances, leicoantocianes, in particular, are responsible for the tart taste; the lower their content is, the less the tart taste is felt, moreover, ripe fruit are less tart in flavour which is due to the tanning substances getting bound with high molecular substances. All the 12 persimmon varieties cultivated in Georgia can be used as raw material, including substandard and overripe fruit that are not marketable and do not have a long shelf life.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors USE OF MOBILE NETWORKS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROTECTING PERSONS AND PROPERTY 2019-10-26T16:35:33+02:00 Martin Boroš Matej Kučera Ladislav Mariš <p>Mobile networks have been around us for decades, and life without them is difficult to reconstruct. Their gradual evolution has varied over time, depending on the requirements of their users. Originally, they were used only for the transmission of telephony, but transmission in the speech band today is mainly used for data transmission and telephony is in moderate attenuation. Various types of data can be transmitted via mobile networks due to their size or importance.</p> <p>In the area of ​​security, mobile networks are used from two basic points of view. The first aspect is the use for communication between the components of the electrical security system and the second is the transmission of information from the monitored object to the monitoring and alarm receiving center.</p> <p>The aim of the paper will be to point out the composition of mobile networks focusing on the functioning of cellular systems and the course of communication between individual parts of the system. The main view will be to the base station of the system without which the functionality of the system would not be possible. In addition to the principle of functionality, we will also focus on utilizing the possibilities of information transmission via mobile networks in terms of property protection and we will focus on the possibility of their use in the future.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors IDENTIFICATION OF THE AVIAN PATHOTYPE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ON LAYER FLOCKS BY MULTIPLEX PCR 2019-10-26T16:35:31+02:00 Marilena Burtan Virgilia Popa Maria Rodica Gurau Doina Danes <p>Introduction: Colibacillosis in poultry is determined by avian pathogenic <em>Escherichia coli </em>(APEC) and represents an important source of economic losses&nbsp; in the poultry industry. APEC’s pathogenicity relies on the presence and expression of different virulence factors. The genes <em>ompA</em> , <em>iss&nbsp; </em>and&nbsp; <em>fimH</em>, encoding the outer membrane protein, the protein inducing resistance to complement and the synthesis of type 1 fimbria are present in APEC strains.</p> <p>Objective: <em>Escherichia coli </em>strains isolated from layers were analysed to assess the pathotype they belong to.</p> <p>Methods: In order to detect the three genes associated with APEC strains, 16 <em>E. coli </em>isolates were investigated for virulence associated genes <em>ompA, iss</em> and <em>fimH</em>, using multiplex PCR.</p> <p>Results: From the 16 <em>E.coli</em> strains submitted, multiplex PCR assessment revealed that 14 (87.5%) of the <em>E. coli </em>strains isolated contained at least one virulence gene, while 2 (12.5%) strains did not harbour any of the virulence genes tested. The <em>fimH </em>gene was noted in 13 (81.25%) of the strains tested, the<em> ompA </em>gene has been present in 12 (75%) strains and the <em>iss </em>gene was present in 9 (56.25%) strains. Eight (50%) strains were found to present all three investigated genes.</p> <p>Conclusion: Presence of these genes is a strong indicatory to consider those strains as belonging to the APEC pathotype.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE USE OF DAMPER SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 2019-10-26T16:35:30+02:00 Naima Ezzaki Daniel Stoica Laurentiu Rece Amelitta Legendi <p>This study aims to emphasize, by means of a comparative study, the efficiency of some damper systems as modern variants of consolidation / seismic structural safety enhancement used for buildings with reinforced concrete structure designed and erected according to the P13-type standards (from 1963) and considering this as an alternative possibility instead of retrofitting with reinforced concrete jackets (with significant implications for most of the structural elements at all levels of buildings). Damper devices are elements that can be easily replaced later in case of damage. Case studies were made, based on structural calculations in the linear elastic field, using the ETABS program.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors WAY OF CONNECTION OF A THREE-PHASE MOTOR TO A SINGLE-PHASE NETWORK VIA RESONANCE EFFECT 2019-10-26T16:35:28+02:00 Zharilkassin Iskakov Vladimir Kossov <p>In this paper, we propose a method to connect a three-phase motor, with windings connected by a star and a phase-shifting capacitor as the third contact, to a single-phase network, with efficient use of electrical energy due to compensation of reactive power and due to effective distribution of the voltage in front of the motor’s oscillating circuit. A resonance phenomenon in an oscillating circuit of the motor is used to compensate for reactive power, i.e. to increase the active power coefficient to the maximum value. A capacitor bank in front of the circuit is used to effectively distribute the voltage at the input of the motor circuit in order to increase the motor voltage from the mains value of 220 V to the nominal value of a three-phase motor of 380 V. A special installation was created for experimental studies. The results of experimental studies, theoretical calculations of the electrical circuit of the installation, as well as the voltage vector diagram of the motor circuit show that the case when voltages on the motor are U = 380 B (U<sub>L</sub>= U<sub>C5</sub>= 325.4 B) and U = 392 B (U<sub>L</sub>= U<sub>C5</sub>= 375.6 B) most closely corresponds to the resonant state of the motor oscillating circuit. The proposed method was introduced into the educational process as a laboratory work for students of technical specialties of the Almaty University of Energy and Communications, and can be used by designers, inventors, scientists and specialists interested in similar issues to create devices that connect a three-phase star-connected motor to a single-phase network.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors THE USE OF SIMULATION IN THE MODEL OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT 2019-10-26T16:35:26+02:00 Michaela Jánošíková Maroš Lacinák <p>Safety as essential quality, needed in the development strategy of every city should be constantly improved by newest technologies. As currently used software and practices were studied, it can be seen that in Smart City concepts, technologies help with governing the city mainly in the field of obtaining, processing and providing information. Interconnection of many various information sources brings the possibility of storing all the information in one central data storage, instead of separated storages for every individual informational source. Taking the information from a central informational centre and their automatic, real-time visualization by simulation technologies can improve safety in the below described ways. By combining advantages of interconnectivity and simulation technologies, we aim to take advantage of their identified possibilities in order to enhance crisis management in all phases of its model. The period before crisis event occurrence consists of the phaseof prevention and the phase of crisis planning. Within the period after crisis event occurrence, there are phases of response and recovery. In this paper, we also present The Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation of Crisis Phenomena in Traffic, which is a part of the University Science Park of the University of Žilina. This laboratory disposes of program VR Forces®, that is used in our research.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors LIQUID CRYSTAL MATERIALS ORIENTATION USING NEW APPROACH 2019-10-26T16:35:24+02:00 Natalia Kamanina <p>It is well known that the liquid crystal (LC) mesophase is actively used in display technique and biomedicine devices. Unfortunately, the switching time of the devices based on the LCs is not fast enough; thus, it is very important to find novel perspective ways to obtain the good switching time of the LC dipoles used in these devices. Initial orientation of the LC molecules influences the dynamic parameters, for example, the switch-on and switch-off characteristics and the diffraction efficiency of the final devices. Among the different methods and approaches to find the optimized orientation of the inertial LC molecules a nanotechnology approach has shown the best results. This approach allows increasing the transparency, to decrease the resistivity and the number of the functional layers in the sandwich LC structures. Thus, it results in a decrease in the applied bias voltage. The effect is based on the fact that the ITO coating can be considered as the conducting layer and as the orienting (alignment) layer simultaneously. In the current paper, we continue our steps in the direction to find the best way of the LC molecules orientation. It is proposed to consider the LC media sensitization process as the method to change the surface relief when this relief is prepared from the polymeric orienting materials doped with the carbon nano-objects. Based on the solid fullerene-doped polyimide thin films and other organics it can be shown that the content of the fullerenes influences the wetting angle significantly. The fullerene concentration is correlated with the different surface relief view applied in the aligning of the LC molecules. The switching of the LC can be improved; furthermore the novel relief depended on the fullerene content can be used for the optical limiting of the laser irradiation.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVERAL WEST GEORGIAN AUTOCHTHONOUS GRAPES AND THEIR WINE STILBENES 2019-10-26T16:35:22+02:00 Maia Kharadze Maia Vanidze Indira Djaparidze Givi Kalandia Ruslan Davitadze Aleko Kalandia <p>The present study was&nbsp;conducted to determine the content of&nbsp;Stilbenes&nbsp;in&nbsp;the&nbsp;several&nbsp;autochthonous&nbsp;West Georgian grapes and&nbsp;wines. Stilbenes were analyzed using HPLC-UV samples and were prepared using resin (amberlite&nbsp;XAD2) column,&nbsp;C18 Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Waters Sep-Pak C18 (500 mg). The identification was achieved using UPLC-PDA and MS analysis. The study was conducted on the following Stilbenes and their derivatives&nbsp;–&nbsp;Astringin,&nbsp;&nbsp;Piceid,&nbsp;Trans/cis resveratrol, and&nbsp;ε-Viniferin.&nbsp;The amount of stilbenes in grapes was determined as: Aladasturi-131.9±4.8&nbsp;&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Aleksandrouli 148.2±4.9&nbsp;&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Mujuretuli&nbsp;215.3±7.9&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1&nbsp;, Chkhaveri 77.5&nbsp;±2.5&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Ojaleshi&nbsp;260.71±9.1mg&nbsp;kg-1&nbsp;. In red wines the&nbsp;content of Stilbenes was&nbsp;&nbsp;Aladasturi-19.17±0.5&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Aleksandrouli 14.&nbsp;87±0.4&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Mujuretuli 21.36±0.5&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1, Chkhaveri 14.5±0.4&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1,&nbsp; Ojaleshi 60.8±2.2&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg-1.&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors AN ANALYSIS OF FOREST GROWTH FEATURES OF LOW-PRODUCTIVE GREY FOREST SANDY SOILS OF UKRAINE WITH REGARD TO THEIR RELEVANCE FOR FOREST CULTIVATION 2019-10-26T16:35:20+02:00 Peter Kijovský Anatoliy Lisnyak Kateryna Utkina Alexey Kraynukov Eva Michaeli <p>A comparative analysis of the forest growth features of low-productive grey forest sandy soils of the Polissia, the Forest-Steppe and the Northern Steppe of Ukraine was performed. Although grey forest soils from different natural zones are distinguished in the genesis of their soil rocks, as well as typical and zonal belongings, at the same time they are united by an important general characteristic, light texture, determining the similarity of physical, physico-chemical and agrochemical indicators and, in general, forest site capacity. A package of markers to assess the forest site capacity of sandy soils (pine habitats) with such soil quality indicators as the content of physical clay, the coarseness of the humified layer of soil profile and K<sub>2</sub>O content was revealed.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors RAPD-ANALYSIS OF CYCLAMEN SPP. GENOME POLYMORPHISM 2019-10-26T16:35:16+02:00 Elza Makaradze Galina Meparishvili Natela Varshanidze Inga Diasamidze Ketevan Dolidze Eteri Jakeli Nana Zarnadze <p>Wild plants form the basis of biological resources both for Georgia and the whole world. A strategic task of any country is to preserve the biological diversity of plants. In the territory of Ajara, a large species diversity of plants grows, among which there are rare, endemic and relict plants. In particular<em>, Cyclamen adzharicum</em>.</p> <p>Modern systematics of wild plants in Georgia is based on classical methods of botany. In this regard, it is relevant to conduct genetic studies of species diversity and genetic polymorphism of species and populations using molecular genetic markers, in particular RAPD-PCR methods. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism in <em>Cyclamen</em> L species using RAPD methods. As a result of the conducted research the 65 RAPD-markers in length from 150 to 1500 BP have been revealed. The number of the amplified fragments DNA varied depending on the primer from 6 (OPA-2) to 11 (OPB-4). The results of grouping <em>Cyclamen adzharicum</em> and <em>C. coum</em> samples allowed two clusters to be identified. In the first cluster were samples of three populations <em>Cyclamen adzharicum</em> and showed a low stubble in the intra-species variability. <em>Cyclamen coum</em> was attributed to the second cluster. The used primers gave the opportunity to identify polymorphism between the tested types of cyclamen.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors DESIGNING A SMALL CLIMATE CHAMBER TO CHARACTERIZE PEOPLE AS A SOURCE OF DETERIORATION OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY BY RESPIRATION 2019-10-26T16:35:13+02:00 Detelin Ganchev Markov Sergey Mijorski Peter Stankov Iskra Simova Radositna A. Angelova Rositsa Velichkova <p><strong>:</strong> People are one of the sources for deterioration of the indoor air quality. They worsen indoor air quality by their presence (respiration, bio-effluents), activities and habits. Through respiration, people decrease the oxygen concentration in the air of the occupied space and increase carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration in the indoor air as well as its temperature. The goal of the AIRMEN project is to find out if the rate of consumption of oxygen and emission of carbon dioxide (and water vapor) by people depends on the indoor air temperature as well as carbon dioxide concentration in the inhaled air. In order to achieve this goal a small climate chamber must be designed and constructed which allows for controlling and measuring both inflow and exposure parameters as well as for measuring outflow parameters. The principal goal of this paper is to present some important details, obtained by CFD simulations, from the design process of the climate chamber which precondition the air distribution in the chamber and hence the exposure parameters.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MICROPROPAGATION OF CHUKRASIA TABULARIS A. FUSS BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS TECHNIQUE 2019-10-26T16:35:12+02:00 Tran Van Minh <p><em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> belongs to the Meliaceae family, which is native to many Asian countries, including Vietnam. It is a precious wood species with beautiful wood grain, light-loving tree with evergreen leaves, widely grown in many places Cameroon, Costa Rica, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, South Africa, United States, China ... for many different purposes: planting economic forests, alternative forests, protective forest belts and urban greenery. In Vietnam, <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> are usually distributed naturally in the northern, central highland and southern provinces. From Nghe Tinh onwards, there are many varieties such as Dong Nai <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> (<em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> var. Dongnaiensis), Con Dao <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> (<em>C. tabularis</em> sp.), small fruit <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> (<em>C. tabularis</em> var. Microcarpa), and hairy <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> (<em>C. tabularis</em> var. Velutina). <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> often grow on well-drained soil, at an altitude of 300-800 m.asl, the annual average temperature is from 2-43<sup>o</sup>C, rainfall is 1,800-3,800 mm. Singing and development occurs in high limestone mountains, meaty soil, mixed meat, nutrient poor sandy soil at an altitude of less than 100 m. The tree is regenerated by seed but grows slowly and with high genetic diversity. Techniques of somatic embryo culture are applied to preserve and develop <em>Chukrasia tabularis</em> plants with urgent needs.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MICROPROPAGATION OF RHYNCHOSTYLIS GIGANTEA ORCHID BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENIC CULTURES 2019-10-26T16:35:10+02:00 Tran Van Minh <p><em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> is a wild orchid species commonly grown. Flowering at the traditional Tet holiday, the flower season always blooms in December of the lunar calendar. The flower has a faint aroma, so it is called Nghinh spring and is a kind of orchid with a national soul and national essence. <em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> is found in many areas in Vietnam as it is distributed in the South Central Highlands, especially the areas bordering Laos and Cambodia at low altitudes &lt;600m. <em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> is a type of heat-resistant orchid, with suitable temperatures for orchid being from 26-30<sup>o</sup>C. <em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> species have many different colors such as red, white, shrimp brick color, blue and pink. The single-member tree does not assume pseudobulbs, grows vertically, has many pneumatophores and grows straight from the stem. <em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> grows slowly and regenerates with seeds. Due to high genetic diversity, it is difficult to maintain the parent’s characteristics. Applying techniques of somatic embryo culture in conservation and development of the <em>Rhynchostylis gigantea</em> tree to meet the increasing demand for seedlings is urgent.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS GENERATED BY A WOOD GASIFICATION PLANT THROUGH ITS USE FOR THE RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED TERRAINS 2019-10-26T16:35:08+02:00 Petar G. Petrov <p>One of the biggest disturbances and pollutants of the environment occur due to the mining industry. For this reason, when talking about the restoration and recultivation of damaged lands and soils a recovery of the disturbed areas affected by mining activities should be first understood. Current waste management trends make us look for opportunities to recultivate disturbed mining areas by using waste or products that have the necessary properties and are a by-product (or waste) of industry. In this study, we have investigated, through laboratory methods, the possibility of using a by-product from a biomass gasification plant (FP) that potentially possesses the properties to improve soils quality during the reclamation process.</p> <p>The paper analyzes the possibilities of using the FP by defining its effect on the soil forming process on disturbed sites, including: acidity, content of nutrients and mobility of heavy metals.</p> <p>In order to determine the possibility of using the FP to enhance soils quality, in the experiment, we used soils that are going to be used for the reclamation of the Eastern embankment of the Ellatzite copper mine and by-product (FP), generated from a Biomass gasification plant located near the mine.</p> <p>The territory that is possible to be reclaimed with FP is an embankment covered with rocks from the Ellatzite mine which has acidic reaction, high content of heavy metals and very low organic content. In general, conditions for land reclamation are severe and specific measures need to be implemented to achieve sustainable results.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors CONTAMINATION OF SOILS BY HEAVY METALS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN BULGARIA 2019-10-26T16:35:06+02:00 Tsvetelina Petrova Iskra Simova Martin Pushkarov Rositsa Velichkova Detelin Markov <p>Heavy metals are one of the major pollutants. The main sources of pollution are industry, transport, the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers in agriculture, the military industry, etc.</p> <p>Pollution is mostly around businesses, highways and treated terrains and they are polymetallic, mostly from Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, As and others.</p> <p>In the current paper the main heavy metals for Bulgaria for the different sources of pollution are presented. An analysis of data for problem areas is made, according to sources of pollution. An analysis of the impact of pollutants on the environment is also conducted.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors ASPECTS CONCERNING THE MEASUREMENT OF FLATNESS DEVIATIONS 2019-10-26T16:35:04+02:00 Laurentiu Rece Tone Ionescu Virgil Florescu Amelitta Legendi Carmen Ardelean <p>This article points out the problems resulting from the calculation of flatness deviations against the adjacent surface defined according to SR EN 1101-2017 and proposes the use of a larger number of measurement points for improved accuracy, along with the identification of a reference plane surface with the help of matrix calculations. All deviations should be re-calculated by comparison to this reference plane. In order to reduce the large number of errors resulting from many rounding applied, this paper proposes the method of deviation measurement at symmetrical coordinates, while the calculation of the reference plane surface would be made with the help of an original method, whereby the number of operations is reduced to a minimum in order to increase accuracy.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL PRESENTATION OF CULTURAL ROUTES AND SPECIALIZED COLLECTIONS 2019-10-26T16:35:02+02:00 Negoslav Sabev Galina Bogdanova Pavel Hristov <p><strong>:</strong> This article discusses issues related to the design of interactive applications which aim to demonstrate human interaction with computer systems in areas including creative industries, cultural tourism and education. Investigations related to the digitization of special collections of cultural property in the Veliko Turnovo region are going to be presented. Various processes are described for the documentation and digitization of specialized archives. Ways and methods are discussed for generation and digital presentation of thematic collections and routes of cultural history in the Veliko Turnovo region. A specific module with interactive digital resource maps is created which are stored in North+ Digital Center repositories. It presents a model for creating an interactive system in need for visually impaired people. This model also ensures the usability of the interactive system for people with disabilities. Digitized objects in archives, thematic cultural routes and collections can be used for educational purposes in studying the cultural heritage of the North+ region.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SMART CLASSROOM, INTERNET OF THINGS AND PERSONALIZED TEACHING 2019-10-26T16:35:00+02:00 Teodor Savov Valentina Terzieva Katia Todorova Petia Kademova-Katzarova <p>Nowadays, information and communication technologies (ICT) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are already ubiquitous in the field of education. They began significantly to change the way of teaching and learning. A large-scale online survey in Bulgarian schools shows that in most classrooms different innovative tools are available which allow technology-enhanced teaching. The next step is to integrate these resources and tools into a smart environment and to manage them through a control system. The authors provide a conceptual framework for the development of an integrated technology-rich learning environment that is supervised by a control module within a contemporary smart classroom. In particular, the paper presents in detail a technical solution for ensuring the communication process between students and the teacher as well as allowing the involvement of parents in the educational process. Additionally, some use cases of the smart classroom are outlined, along with discussions on the potential benefits for teachers, learners and parents.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors SOIL DEVELOPMENT AND PROPERTIES OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS SUCCESSION IN RECLAIMED SITES IN BULGARIA 2019-10-26T16:34:58+02:00 Veneta V. Stefanova Petar G. Petrov <p>One of the most important preconditions of ecosystem rehabilitation in post mining landscapes is the process of soil development. In this context, the microbial activity in soil plays an important role.</p> <p>Microbial activity was studied in several reclaimed post mining sites resulted from the mining activity in Bulgaria. The studied soils are characterized by different biogenicity. The development of the total microflora in soils is higher in the surface layers but in depth, their number decreases due to the inhibiting effect of pollutants (heavy metals) and a change in the physico-chemical conditions. The dominant microorganisms are non-spore bacteria and all studied soils showed the development of pigment types of bacteria resulting from the high content of heavy metals. The composition of the microorganisms is poor, which can be taken as an indicator that the microbicenosis is still in the process of formation. In depth, their number is reduced by applying the effect of contamination.</p> <p>The mineralization coefficient values are the highest in the field with the greatest age of re-cultivation, where humidification is the most advanced.</p> <p>The study shows that vegetation type and litter quality seem to be more important for soil microbial activity than the substrate quality on the reclaimed sites.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors INFLUENCE OF INDOOR POLLUTION AND PARAMETERS ON HUMAN HEALTH 2019-10-26T16:34:56+02:00 Rositsa Velichkova Peter Stankov Radositna A. Angelova Iskra Simova Detelin Markov <p>Indoor air quality (IAQ) is an important issue, considering that modern people spend most of their time indoors in houses, workplaces, recreation areas. IAQ has a serious impact on human health, comfort, performance, and wellbeing. In order to minimize the negative consequences, considerable efforts are made to assure the high quality of the indoor air. In the present paper, indoor pollution is analysed in light of its effect on IAQ and human health. The indoor pollutants are due to the presence of higher concentrations of chemical species, physical processes or biologicals in the ambient air. &nbsp;</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MICROCLONAL PROPAGATION OF CRATAEGUS MONOGYNA JACQ. IN VITRO 2019-10-26T16:34:54+02:00 Nana Zarnadze Ketevan Dolidze Sophiko Manjgaladze Nazi Turmanidze Jana Chitanava Gia Bolkvadze Eteri Jakeli <p>We have researched <em>Crataegus Monogina Jacq. </em>microclonal propagation and in vitro mass regeneration processes. For this experiment we used the asleep buds isolated from maternal plants and in vitro cultivated apical and axillary buds as the effective explants.</p> <p>The high coefficient of micropropagation was provided with Gamborg Medium (B<sub>5</sub>) nutrient medium added alongside the hormones of cytokinin nature. The best result was achieved in the case of introduction of 2-Isopentenyladenine (2-iP) at concentration of 5-10 mcm and Benzilaminopurine (BAP) at concentration of 10-15 mcm. For stimulation of the mictropropagation process it is reasonable to add a small dose of the auxin hormone 1-Naphtylacetic acid (NAA) together with the cytokinins to the nutritive medium. It has been shown that the growth of micropropagation coefficient in pro rata the kinds and concentration of phytohormones. Regenerated microshoots had a good capacity of rooting. The most effective method for rooting purpose was the introduction of Indole- 3 –butyric acid (IBA) at concentration of 5mcm into 1 /2 B<sub>5</sub> nutrient medium. The rooted regenerant plants successfully adopted in vivo.</p> 2019-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 404: Not Found