CBU International Conference Proceedings 2019-06-16T10:33:31+02:00 Petr Hájek Open Journal Systems <p><a href="">Indexed in Web of Science since 2016!</a></p> <p>The conference aims to bring together the researchers from all fields to discuss with each other interesting areas of research and possible cooperation.&nbsp;All articles are peer reviewed. Also indexed by Proquest.&nbsp;</p> Front Matter: Volume 6 (Proceedings of CBU) 2019-06-16T10:33:30+02:00 Petr Hájek Ondřej Vít <p>This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 6 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.</p> 2018-09-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INTERSECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SKILLS AND STRATEGIC COMPETENCES IN DEVELOPING THE HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:04:30+01:00 Aleksey Baranov Ovakimyan Mikhail Kotlyarova Olga <p>This article provides the results of research and projection of the current and innovative models of competences for modern civil servants. The principal aim of the study is to identify the interdependence of the human resource policy instruments and the current and innovative models of competences for a modern civil servant. The study objectives are fourfold: 1) describe the existing three-cluster competence model of a civil servant; 2) identify competences that update the professional potential of modern civil servants; 3) project an innovative model for a modern civil servant based on the results of a foresight analysis involving sessions with representatives of the state administration in the Rostov and Vladimir regions; and 4) identify the digital economy factors influencing the development of the civil service system in modern Russia. The methodological basis of this work is a large-scale foresight analysis using an expert survey carried out among representatives of the state administration of the Rostov and Vladimir region. This includes data analysis and classification of 302 individual questionnaires. The main purpose of the work is to identify the interdependence of strategic competences and technological skills for determining the dynamics of the Russian state human resource policy, as well as defining digital economy factors influencing the development of the civil service system in modern Russia.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ON USING GUERRILLA IN BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: THE MANAGERS’ VIEWS 2019-02-20T12:04:29+01:00 Belem Barbosa Dolores Silva Claudia Amaral Santos Sandra Filipe <p>Guerrilla marketing is an innovative approach to communicate with customers and to capture their attention essentially due to its inherent creativity, unconventional media, and low cost. Despite the interesting contributions in the literature on this topic, most of what is known about guerrilla marketing is confined to its use and impact on consumers. This study aims to fill a gap identified in the guerrilla marketing literature by conducting an exploratory research study on the propensity of performing guerrilla marketing campaigns in a Business-to-Business (B2B) context. The research objectives of this paper are (i) identifying the perceptions of B2B managers on guerrilla marketing campaigns and (ii) exploring determinants of the adoption of guerrilla marketing campaigns targeted at corporate customers.</p><p>We present the results of a qualitative research study comprising 12 semi-structured interviews with managers of different business areas. A content analysis was performed using Nvivo software.</p><p>Participants in this study demonstrated that B2B managers recognize and value the advantages associated with guerrilla communication, which is in many instances seen as useful and viable for the B2B sector. The propensity for adoption is dependent on internal factors such as corporate culture, managers’ and collaborators’ profiles, risk-proneness, market share, and product innovativeness, but also on the sector’s usual practices of innovation and communication. Guerrilla marketing campaigns are more appropriate for attracting new B2B customers and need to be carefully adapted to the targets' profiles and preferences.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE LARGE BUSINESSES OF RUSSIA: AN INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 2019-02-20T12:04:28+01:00 Viktor Barkhatov Daria Bents Irina Belova Yuner Kapkaev <p>The aim of the article is to analyze the distribution of large Russian enterprises in key areas of activity within each federal district. Analytical and review articles concern problems of large, medium and small businesses, their role in the national economy and regional economic policy, problems of interaction between the state and business structures are the basis of theoretical and methodological approach of this research. The information base for this research is the data of accounting and tax reporting of large Russian enterprises in 2016. This data was provided by the First Independent Rating Agency. We show an uneven distribution of large enterprises across the Russian territory. More than a half of the large-sized enterprises are located in the Central Federal District. We identify areas of activity peculiar to large enterprises in each federal district and also areas of activity that are not very popular among large businesses. In the majority of regions, the greatest percent of the enterprises are presented by wholesale and retail trade. On the second place there are the enterprises of the manufacturing industry. As for mining, large business is concentrated in those regions where minerals are extracted. Among the least popular sectors are the spheres of research and development. The results will be a platform for further evaluation of the contribution of large business to the welfare of Russian regions.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PHENOMENON OF A TRANSACTIONAL RENT IN AGRARIAN BUSINESS 2019-02-20T12:04:27+01:00 Viktor Barkhatov Daria Bents Elena Silova Elena Kozlova <p>The phenomenon of a transactional rent in agrarian business in Russian regions is studied in the presented paperwork. The authors have found such phenomenon while they were analyzing contractual relations in regional agrarian branches. The  research was supported by the state grant for young scientists in 2015-2016. The authors gathered a set of qualitative and quantitative results exploring the problem of agrarian contractual relations.</p><p>The article’s purpose is to research the nature and forms of transactional rent, to develop a technique of the quantitative assessment of contractual relations’ efficiency, and to evaluate that level.</p><p>Transactional rent is understood as the income gained by one subject (contractor) while there are reasons to suppose that this income shall belong to the other subject of a transaction (if the market is perfect). Transactional rent is a result of imperfection in the market mechanism. The authors consider inefficiency of the contractual relations as the main problem of agrarian market functioning. That is shown by the presence of high market barriers, discriminating conditions, multiplicity of subjects of a contractual chain, and lack of regulation of contractual relations in business practice. The high prices of food for customers, monopolization of markets at the level of retail trade, high level of shadow operations in this market and, respectively, imperfection of monitoring over food quality are the consequences of similar inefficiencies of contractual relations. Threat of food security and regional economic stability in general can arise as the result of a high level of transactional rent. The research is based on neoinstitutional methodology. Key methods of research are statistical and econometric as a method of economic modeling. For carrying out empirical research, authors have access to the paid database (FIRA PRO) where a huge number of statistical information on the agrarian market is available. For the analysis of the level of transactional rent in agrarian business, the authors use a technique with such indicators as effectiveness ratio of the contract relations and coefficient of opportunism. In the conducted statistical research, it is established that the greatest transactional rent is formed at the third element of an agrarian contract chain (wholesale trade).</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## GOING BEYOND: EFFECTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE ACROSS ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS 2019-02-20T12:04:26+01:00 Ezmolda Barolli Ilir Kurti <p>Although information technology today is a driving force behind public sector innovation, harnessing the benefits of investing in such technology is challenging for governments worldwide. Hence, a wide number of governments are endeavoring to implement governance projects for effective information technology. This study expands on earlier research into information technology governance within the public sector. The earlier study proposed a new construct to analyze the critical success factors. While the previous work mainly focused on the strategic level, this current study spans the organizational levels of strategic, tactical, and operational. Apart from a general consensus on Critical Success Factors, the results reveal a number of differences between the levels that affect every organization. Failure to minimize these differences could have a negative effect on the aligning business with information technology.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ROLE OF STUDENT LOANS SUBSIDIZED BY THE STATE IN THE SLOVAK BANKING SECTOR 2019-02-20T12:04:24+01:00 Mária Barteková Ľudomír Šlahor The aim of this paper is to analyse student loans subsidized by the state in Slovakia and their role in the Slovak banking sector. There has been a slight increase in the Slovak banking market, especially the share of small and medium-sized banks. Student loans ensure equal educational opportunities for all students. Four years of a student loan provision in Slovakia can be briefly characterised as a socially oriented approach. The Slovak government, the founding owner of the Education Support Fund, has implemented numerous changes concerning the clients in the borrowing as well as in the repayment phase. The empirical analysis in this paper consists of the descriptive statistics focused on the Slovak student loan market and the financial analysis of the banking sector providing student loans in Slovakia. The most significant finding that emerged from our analysis is to provide every student enrolled in higher education with the information on accessible student loans with a low interest rates. The achieved results prove the decreasing role of student loans subsidized by the state within the Slovak banking market. However, the profitability of the Education Support Fund was significantly higher than the figure achieved by the Slovak banking sector in 2017. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DETERMINANTS OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE: AN INVESTIGATION WITH BMA FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION 2019-02-20T12:04:23+01:00 Krzysztof Beck The empirical literature on the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT) is vast and comprehensive, yet as authors failed to properly account for model uncertainty it has brought inconsistent and conflicting results. To resolve this issue, Bayesian model averaging was applied to investigate the robustness of 48 potential determinants of bilateral IIT for the panel of 26 European Union countries over the 1999-2011 period. Application of BMA demonstrated that 11 of them are robust determinants of IIT, namely real GDP products, trade openness, membership in the European Union and the Euro area, corruption, and differences in factor abundance. Among the factors of production, the key role in the determination of IIT patterns can be assigned to the differences in human capital. Yet, transportation cost and cultural similarity have no impact on the IIT patterns. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ACTIVITIES AIMED AT FACILITATION OF COMPETITIVENESS IN THE LATVIAN AQUACULTURE SECTOR 2019-02-20T12:04:22+01:00 Inese Biukšāne Aquaculture belongs to the fisheries sector, which is evaluated as a highly productive, competitive and eco-friendly sector. The EU’s and Latvia’s economic breakthrough is related to the aquaculture sector. Participating in the establishment of the Common Fisheries Policy of the EU and using the support provided by the EU’s financial instruments, have given the Latvian aquaculture sector wide opportunities in the facilitation of competitiveness. This paper will aim to evaluate the competitiveness of the Latvian aquaculture sector, providing suggestions for its further development. On the grounds of the Model of the Factors Influencing Competitiveness of the Fisheries Sector Cluster, Aquaculture Competitiveness Index and the offered types of strategies developed by the author, was evaluated and analyzed the competitiveness of Latvian aquaculture sector and provided suggestions for further development of the sector. Significance of the factors and their influence upon competitiveness was checked through Principal component and regression analysis. In the framework of the research was evaluated and analyzed the level of competitiveness in Latvian aquaculture sector, identified ensuring spheres influencing competitiveness and provided suggestions for further development of the sector. The methodology developed within this paper can be used for evaluation of competitiveness of fisheries and its sectors in different countries. The results of the research can be used in elaboration, planning and improvement of the common policy of the sector. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CHINA’S MARKET AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC FACTORS 2019-02-20T12:04:21+01:00 Mária Bohdalová Michal Greguš <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the causal relation between the Chinese stock market and the US market. We investigate the dependence structures between two Chinese stock markets (Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHCOMP) and Hong Kong Hang Seng Index (HSCEI) markets) and global economic factors such as SP 500 stock markets, volatility index VIX, crude oil and gold. We have used data based on a period from January 2000 to June 2017. The aim of this paper is to explore the causal link between the Chinese market and global economic factors. We have discovered asymmetric causal relations between stock returns and global risk factors based on a quantile regression.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PRICE AS AN INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION TOOL IN PROMOTING THE CONSUMPTION OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS 2019-02-20T12:04:20+01:00 Santa Bormane <p class="Els-Abstract-text">There are favourable conditions for the development of sustainable marketing in Latvia. In order to take advantage of this, businesses need to conduct market research on the need and demand for sustainable products and draw up a marketing strategy encompassing all the marketing mix elements serving the People, Planet, and Profit. Businesses need to create a well-thought approach, a sustainable product assortment and promotion and selling activities in line with sustainability conditions. The consumers of nowadays are very sensitive to any price changes, and businesses may use price changes as an IMC (integrated marketing communication) tool in communication with their consumers to help not only sell or promote new products, but also boost the sales of healthy, ecological, domestic manufactured products.</p><p>The goal of the research is to study and assess the role of price as an integrated marketing communication tool for sustainability in the context of demand. The subject of the research is price as a set of IMC tools, and the object of research are the price tools for the sustainable development of food retail chains.</p><p>In order to accomplish the goal and objectives of the research, the author used the results of previous studies and the following quantitative and qualitative methods of economic research: survey, comparison, and grouping. The research is based on scientific papers published by Latvian and foreign scholars, general and scientific literature, and periodicals. Within the research there an assessment was conducted, a market investigation, a comparative analysis, as well as a survey of leading specialists from Latvian food retail chains, with the MS Excel software used for data processing and analysis.</p><p>The research confirmed the hypothesis that price changes as an IMC tool and the use therefore may positively affect the buyer’s market behaviour and foster the consumption of sustainable, ecological, domestic manufactured products. The results of the research are of both theoretical and practical value.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ADOPTION AND USE OF NEW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LEVEL OF CEE-EU COUNTRIES 2019-02-20T12:04:18+01:00 Mihai Costea Gabriela Arionesei Cristian Valentin Hapenciuc This paper focuses on determining the current state of adoption of new information and communication technologies by the population of EU countries from the Central and Eastern parts of Europe (referred in the paper as CEE-EU countries). We have conducted a detailed analysis between Romania and Bulgaria because there are historical, geographical, political and economic similarities between these two neighbouring countries. In order to objectively reflect the results of the comparative analysis at the regional level, we have used the data provided by the World Economic Forum through the Competitiveness Index, the International Institute for Management Development through the Competitiveness Yearbook and the International Telecommunication Union through the ICT Development Index. The results of the comparative analysis reflect many regional disparities. At the same time, it can be noticed that both Romania and Bulgaria are the countries with the weakest results regarding the penetration rate of Internet accessibility in their populations, a fact which leads to a low degree of adaptability of the human capital to new information technologies and, implicitly, a low rate of adoption of the Internet in the sphere of business and public services. This is explained by the insufficient development of ICT infrastructure in the rural area, caused by numerous factors such as insufficient economic development and the low purchasing power of the population, but also by the relatively low level of education in ICT use. Although the influx of information and communication technologies occurred after the 1990s, namely at a time when even countries like Romania or Bulgaria were already part of the free market economy, the gaps recorded during the communist regime (economic, but especially socio-cultural), were apparently difficult to recover in the years to come, therefore this upsurge in information technology has been somewhat delayed in the South-Eastern area of Europe. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BUSINESS VALUE CREATED BY MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING 2019-02-20T12:04:17+01:00 Marius Costin Daraban Porter stated in his value chain concept that business support activities are contributing to the value creation process of a business organization. In the “classical view” business support activities are considered as indirect productive and not having a clear and direct contribution to the business organization value chain. The information age has enabled and leveraged business support activities to become decisive contributors to the value creation process of any business. Can this value contribution be somehow determined or quantified? Management accounting is a classical business support activity that contributes to the business organization value chain. Through usage of value management and value driven performance indicators, the value contribution can be determined and quantified.  The present paper is highlighting one possible alternative to determine the value contribution by using indicators like economic value added and economic profit. The value-based approach is putting indirect productive business activities into a new position, the one of a clear and important business value creator that cannot be ignored in the 21<sup>st</sup> century, a century driven by data, a nd information and knowledge that can sustain a decisive sustainable competitive advantage. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COST SAVING STRATEGY FOR POST OFFICE 2019-02-20T12:04:16+01:00 Silvia Dutková <p>The paper displays a system optimization strategy that leads to cost savings for a particular post office. It involves the queuing theory used as a tool to optimize system of incoming customers passing through service areas in order to satisfy their need Using characteristics of the system, it is possible to determine the number of service compartments that are serving during the opening time so that the system is able to manage a number of incoming customers while waiting time remains acceptable for customers. The cost savings from optimizing the number of service compartments mainly relate to the wages of post office employees. By optimizing the number of working compartments according to the intensity of arriving customers, the study depicts the number of compartments needed to fulfill customer service at given time interval. Using this method, a manager can also optimize the working schedule of the employees operating in the  post office compartments. The aim of this paper is to analyze the queuing system of the Bytca post office in Slovak and useknowledge from the analysis to optimize the number of compartments and thus reduce the operating costs of the post office.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## AN EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF ENTREPRENEURS BY STUDENTS OF CZECH AND SLOVAKIAN UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR TENDENCY TOWARDS ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2019-02-20T12:04:15+01:00 Ján Dvorský Zora Petráková Martina Jurigová The aim of this article is to compare the assessment of significance of personality characteristics of entrepreneurs in the Czech and Slovak Republic as well as the tendency of students to start entrepreneurships after graduating from university. The research sample consisted of 409 students from 14 universities studying business in the last year in the Czech Republic and 568 students from 8 universities studying in the Slovak Republic. In order to meet the paper’s aim, statistical hypotheses were formulated and validated using the Z-score method. One result is that students working in universities in the Slovak Republic are more interested that Czech students in doing business within three years after finishing their studies, unless unexpected circumstances happen in their families. More than 75% of the addressed students at the Slovak university considered endurance, expertise, responsibility and risk awareness as the most important qualities of an entrepreneur. More than 60% of Czech students have the same opinion. There are significant differences in opinions of the students from the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BIG DATA: POTENTIAL, CHALLENGES, AND IMPLICATIONS IN OFFICIAL STATISTICS 2019-02-20T12:04:14+01:00 Ogerta Elezaj Dhimitri Tole <p>The data explosion called “data deluge”, is already starting to transform public institutions redefining their way of producing statistics in response to Big Data. The use of Big Data is considered as an innovation in the production of official statistics facing a range of opportunities, challenges and risks. This “data deluge” requires a number of challenges to be addressed in various domains: technological, legal, methodological, and statistical. Even though big data is changing the paradigm of producing statistics in many public organizations, an open debate still exists involving both IT specialists and statisticians of national statistical institutions.  </p><p>In this paper we will provide an overview regarding the concepts of Big Data as a data source in production of official statistics by government institutions with the main focus on providing a synoptic overview of opportunities, challenges and risks. Following this, in the next section we will analyse a case study related to the potential use of mobile positing data, and how this data could be used to produce national statistical indicators in the country. This study serves as an example to identify some critical issues on challenges and risks, draw conclusions and give recommendations on the proper ways to shift to Big Data paradigm usage in the government sector in Albania.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RUSSIA’S IMPACT ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF OTHER EAEU MEMBER STATES WITH RESPECT TO TRADE IN HIGH-TECH GOODS 2019-02-20T12:04:13+01:00 Krzysztof Falkowski <p>The main objective of this article is to determine the influence of Russia (in terms of their exports to Russia) on the competitiveness of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in the international trade of high-tech goods in 2000-2016 in the context of the overall competitiveness of these countries in the international trade in this goods category. To this end, the author’s formula was used, which is a modification of the method of analysis of revealed comparative advantages in foreign trade of a given country developed by B. Balassa, while taking into account a hypothetical situation of total exclusion of exports to a country whose impact on the competitiveness of a given country is under examination. The analysis clearly shows that the influence of Russia (in terms of their exports to Russia) on the international competitiveness of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in the area of high-tech goods trade in 2000-2016 was generally positive, although it differed in terms of strength of the impact, with the strongest being the case of Belarus and the weakest being the case of Armenia. However, this did not change the overall uncompetitive position of the analysed EAEU countries in the total international trade of high-tech goods.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WATER POLICY IN GREECE: MANAGEMENT AND PRICING UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC 2019-02-20T12:04:11+01:00 Polytimi Farmaki Apostolos Tranoulidis This paper is related to Greece’s water policy as it was formulated after the incorporation of Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60. We examined the status and evolution of constitutional provisions for the protection and management of water resources spanning from the first Greek Constitution of 1843 up to the current constitutional text of 1975 as formulated in 2008 with the incorporation of its third revision. In parallel, we investigated the Greek water pricing legal framework in accordance with Article 9 "Recovery of costs for water services" of the WFD. We compared the actual rates of water services as set by Municipal Water Supply Sewerage Companies (DEYAs) operating in 11 cities across Greece. The findings reveal that there are considerable problems and delays in the implementation of WFD. Regarding municipal water pricing policies, we concluded that DEYAs do not follow a unified and structured pricing scheme. Furthermore, several companies do not discriminate between data costs either per service (water supply, sewerage) or per use (water supply, irrigation, etc.). Finally, it is evident that none of them has yet adopted the relevant provisions set by the European directive for full cost recovery and water pricing reflecting financial, environmental and water resources costs. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TOURISTS’ MOTIVATIONS AND OBSTACLES FOR CHOOSING GLAMPING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY 2019-02-20T12:04:10+01:00 Sandra Filipe Claudia Amaral Santos Belem Barbosa Although still little-known, glamping has become a nature-based tourism option for people who want a higher level of comfort. The offer of this type of accommodation is growing, namely in Portugal, but there are still few studies that address the motivations and other relevant factors explaining its adoption or refusal by consumers. The present study applied a qualitative approach aimed at exploring consumers’ motivations or obstacles for choosing glamping, and their perceptions as tourists on the differences between glamping and camping. Data were collected through the conduction of focus groups held in 2017 and content analysis techniques for contextualized interpretations were used. The most important motivational driver to go glamping is the direct contact with nature. Glamour, comfort, privacy and a different experience are also important aspects that consumers appreciate. Inversely, the main obstacles are the cost, the limited offer, the lack of knowledge, and the non-authenticity, compared to camping, of the offer. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EUROPEAN PUBLIC POLICIES IN THE AREA OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY: COUNTRY PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 2019-02-20T12:04:09+01:00 Victoria Folea <p><strong>T</strong>he concept of the digital economy and society is quickly changing the reality of how citizens live and work. Originally anchored under the discipline of the information society, the new model of a digital technologies economy and society announces a shift from the knowledge-based to the data-based paradigm. This change was recognized in Europe in 2007, with the European Commission’s Communication “E-skills for the 21<sup>st</sup> Century: Fostering Competitiveness, Growth and Jobs”. In the following years, many European Union and national public policies and programmes were designed and introduced in Europe in order to keep abreast of the profound changes the model of digital economy and society brings into our world.</p><p>This paper analyses European public policies’ and programmes’ scope and objectives, evaluating their impact in terms of country-wide digital competitiveness over the period of 2014–2017. The paper provides insights at a European- as well as country-specific levels (via case studies) and covers the following areas: (1) scope and objectives of European public policies for the digital economy and society in Europe; (2) key actors involved in the public policies of the digital economy and society in Europe; (3) evaluation of the European public policies for the digital economy and society in Europe. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed for data collection and analysis: database research and analysis, statistical analysis, content and thematic research, and analysis from policy papers and reports.</p><p>The implementation of digital public policies in the EU from 2014–2017 led to an increase in the number of people with basic and advanced digital skills. However, the number of countries below the EU-28 average in 2017 in terms of human capital preparation for a digital society and economy was high. The digital public policies on the human capital dimension in the EU need to improve in national action and lead with urgency to a significant increase in the number of people with basic and advanced digital skills.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES IN STATE AND MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 2019-02-20T12:04:08+01:00 Ilya Gaisinsky Natalya Niсonenko Marina Perova Perova In the modern society, Internet technologies are essential and are used in various fields of activity. This article covers the application of Internet technologies in the state and the municipal management areas. It includes the tools of Internet technologies most in demand at present for effective information interaction of authorities with citizens. The study explores new means of disseminating information using network technologies, such as the ‘Internet of Things’, and examines their application in state and municipal management areas. Social services of the Internet, which are the main technological trends of the third technology platform in the state and municipal management areas, are discussed with emphasis on the Internet technologies used in implementing ‘smart cities’. The scope of the study comprises the situation in Russia and the Rostov region. The paper concludes on the importance of using these technologies in the state and municipal management areas. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DIGITAL MARKETING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHODS 2019-02-20T12:04:06+01:00 Elina Gaitniece The share of digital marketing from total marketing spending is increasing fast year by year. Still the majority of companies admit that they are missing clear methods on how to evaluate (positive/negative) effects obtained using digital marketing. As this field of digital marketing is relatively new, there are no firm and widely recognized measurement methods resulting in marketing specialists being confused by an overwhelming amount and variety of different digital marketing metrics and large amounts of data. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to list the existing methods which could help marketers to evaluate their digital marketing campaign effectiveness and to discuss these methods’ effectiveness with experts.  To achieve this aim, the author defined the following objectives for the paper: 1) to explore which digital marketing campaign effectiveness evaluation methods can be found in realized scientific research so far; 2) to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each method by conducting expert interviews; 3) to determine the practical application opportunities for each identified method; and 4) to draw conclusions and make recommendations for the practical usage of the studied methods. Research methods used were secondary data analysis and expert interviews. The secondary data analysis contained reviews of scientific research results in the field mentioned above. The expert interviews covered in-depth interviews with the main stakeholders – leading online retailers in the Baltics and digital marketing experts. The results show that the conversion evaluation method is most frequently used in theory and in practice as it can be best connected with direct business goals to increase sales. It also highlights that each method has some benefits to be used in specific situations, with specific aims. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF INSTITUTIONAL EFFICIENCY ON THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2019-02-20T12:04:05+01:00 Alena D. Galenkova Igor M. Drapkin Oleg S. Mariev The aim of this paper is assessing the impact of the effectiveness of the country's institutions on the foreign direct investment inflows in developing countries with the use of econometric modeling. We put forward a hypothesis about the positive impact of institutional factors on the foreign direct investment inflow. The overall influence of institutions is evaluated using the multiplication of the index of economic freedom and the state fragility index, as two indices, most fully characterizing the disjoint groups of the institutions. To achieve the main goal of the study, we accomplish the econometric modeling based on data from the World Bank, the Heritage Foundation and the Fund for Peace from 1995 to 2015. As the main tool of econometric analysis, a panel regression with fixed effects is used and the technique of a two-step least-squares regression analysis method with instrumental variables is used to solve a possible endogeneity problem in the model. As a result of the study, an assessment of the overall impact of institutional factors through the composition of indices was carried out and a hypothesis about the positive impact of institutional factors on the inflow of foreign direct investment in developing countries was confirmed. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EMPLOYERS DEMANDS ON E-SKILLS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN CONDITIONS OF DIGITAL ECONOMY 2019-02-20T12:04:04+01:00 Katarína Gašová Tomáš Mišík Zuzana Štofková The digital era is a society- and worldwide affair culminating in change in every sphere of people’s lives and life. The people of the Slovak Republic are not exempt. Modern trends that determine employers’ demands for digital literacy include the Digital Single Market, Industry 4.0, automation, and digitalization. The potential for usability of digital technologies depends on whether people can perceive their benefits, know how to handle them, and use them in practice. One of the prerequisites for an individual in the ‘information society’ or the ‘knowledge society’ is the acquiring, renewing and deepening of digital skills. Universities augment these processes. This paper analyses the primary sources of acquiring digital skills nationally and compares the digital skills of students from the University of Žilina. The proficient use of information and communications technology for problem solving, teamwork, and communication is the most required skill by employers. This study’s survey results suggest that the education system does not sufficiently reflect the current demands of a rapidly changing labor market. Also, the education system does not meet students’ expectations for e-skills acquired during their study and this result should be a matter of forthcoming discussions. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPARING THE USE OF DIGITAL PLATFORMS IN TOURISM 2019-02-20T12:04:03+01:00 Tatiana Genzorová Tatiana Čorejová Natália Stalmašeková People today are more willing to spend money on travel than ever before. Because of new possibilities, traveling is easier and travelers can choose options quicker for immediate travel. Today, their decisions are influenced by the use of mobile applications in tourism, which can help with finding accommodation the world over. Travelers do not need to check special hotels in a chosen destination and compare prices to find the most suitable or cheapest option. Mobile applications in tourism can do that for them, making traveling much simpler. The aim of this paper is to describe trends in tourism in Slovakia. The first part of the paper contains a general framework of digital platforms and the second part describes the current situation of tourism in Slovakia compared with that in the Czech Republic. The paper highlights attitudinal differences between countries regarding the use of mobile applications in tourism. The final part of the paper contains research about new customs of Slovaks in tourism<strong>.</strong> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE STORY OF THE ICY PARADISE: POLISH MIGRATION TO NORWAY AFTER THE EU ENLARGEMENT (2004) IN THE LIGHT OF RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL DATA 2019-02-20T12:04:02+01:00 Katarzyna Gmaj Krystyna Iglicka <p>This paper highlights basic trends in migration outflows of Poles to Norway. It focuses on the fact that Polish migrants constitute the biggest group of immigrants in Norway and addresses the question regarding their geographical distribution. The authors analyse some theoretical approaches, statistical data and trends with special emphasis on the demographics of the Polish population in Norway in relation to the labour market and family behaviours. Furthermore, the analysis presented in this paper emphasizes that, along with the networks and growing number of children, a part of the temporary Polish migration into Norway has been transformed from circular migration into permanent migration. Therefore, adaptation of Polish migrants in Norway is better explained in terms of different stages in the migratory process rather than in terms of different categories of migrants. What is more, the process of pioneering male migration followed by a family reunification seems similar to that observed in Polish migration to the UK.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EMPLOYER BRANDING ON THE WEB: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE SELECTED POLISH COMPANIES 2019-02-20T12:04:01+01:00 Kalina Grzesiuk Monika Wawer <p>This article concerns employer branding strategies implemented by the selected Polish companies. The main purpose of this paper is to present the current state of network tools utilization among the largest Polish private firms listed in 2017 by the Forbes Magazine. The media taken into consideration included the company’s website career page and the firm’s presence on the job related network sites such as: LinkedIn, GoldenLine, and The research described in this paper was based on a case study method. The results show that the company’s website and the social network sites are effective tools for building a firm’s profile as a part of employer branding strategies. However, with such a wide choice of the job related services available, a company must choose the services that allow the company to address the right target audience for active and passive job seekers. <strong></strong></p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE FOOD BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS – LITERATURE AND RESEARCH REVIEW 2019-02-20T12:03:59+01:00 Gabriela Hanus <span>Currently, market behaviour, including the food behaviour of consumers, shaped in societies is largely a consequence of civilizational and cultural development and the ongoing globalization process. The aim of this article is to discuss the impact of globalization on the food behaviour of consumers based on secondary sources of information published over the period of 1995-2017. The article shows theoretical aspects of globalization and the food behaviour of consumers, the globalization phenomenon in the contemporary world and the impact of globalization on the food behaviour of consumers<strong>. </strong>Across the studies covered by this paper it was found that </span><span>the impact of globalization on </span><span>the food behaviour of </span><span>consumers is visible in such behaviour as buying food in supermarkets, eating in fast food restaurants, </span><span>looking for both comfort in eating and unique experiences. However, it has also been indicated that globalization influence on creation of some moves and attitudes against it, such as preferring domestic or ecological products, slow food ideas or actions in the field of food safety. </span> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF BITCOIN MARKET EFFICIENCY BY USING MACHINE LEARNING 2019-02-20T12:03:58+01:00 Yuki Hirano Lukáš Pichl Cheoljun Eom Taisei Kaizoji The issue of market efficiency for cryptocurrency exchanges has been largely unexplored. Here we put Bitcoin, the leading cryptocurrency, on a test by studying the applicability of the Efficient Market Hypothesis by Fama from two viewpoints: (1) the existence of profitable arbitrage spread among Bitcoin exchanges, and (2) the possibility to predict Bitcoin prices in EUR (time period 2013-2017) and the direction of price movement (up or down) on the daily trading scale.  Our results show that the Bitcoin market in the time period studied is partially inefficient. Thus the market process is predictable to a degree, hence not a pure martingale. In particular, the F-measure for XBTEUR time series obtained by three major recurrent neural network based machine learning methods was about 67%, i.e. a way above the unbiased coin tossing odds of 50% equal chance. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DETERMINANTS OF EFFECTIVE PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN COMPUTER GAMES – LITERATURE REVIEW 2019-02-20T12:03:57+01:00 Magdalena Hofman-Kohlmeyer Hofman-Kohlmeyer <p>Product placement is a common tool in promotional campaign. Marketers feature products in the plot of movies or TV programs to improve brand image and influence purchase decisions. Companies more often decide to embed products or brand identifiers inside computer games. Product placement attracts attention of managers as well as scholars. Vast parts of research focused on determinants of effective product placement in a game environment. The present paper aims to represent the main determinants that influence the effectiveness of product placement and is based on literature review.</p><p>INTRODUCTION: Recently, we have witnessed the evolution of product placement in computer games. This new medium attracted many well-known companies such as IBM, Adidas or Coca-Cola. According to the growing popularity of placing product in games, an increase in scientists' interest in the effectiveness of this phenomenon can be observed. Research focuses on evaluating players' brand memory, attitudes toward to the game, product or brand, and purchasing intentions. It is important to note that brands placed in games affect the audience in different degrees because the brand can be featured in various ways. Some of the scholars investigated the factors that can exert influence on the effectiveness of product placement in computer games.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The present paper is aimed to investigate the main determinants of effective product placement in computer games.</p><p>METHODS: The article is based on polish and foreign literature review.</p><p>RESULTS: The growing ranks of scholars has been observed to have interest in the effectiveness of product placement in computer games. According to the literature, it can be said that an effectiveness of product (or brand) placement in a game environment is determined by: the degree of product/brand visibility in the game (prominence as well as proximity), game-product congruity, customer engagement in a game, persuasive knowledge, and strategy of product or brand integration with the game. There is also research that explores how these determinants influence product placement effectiveness in a game environment.</p><p>CONCLUSION: Despite the progress made, there are still important limitations of the conducted research, e.g. results can be moderate by various circumstances such as using fictitious or real brands. In addition, the same factor can have positive as well as negative effects. For instance, product placement proximity on the one hand enhances brand recall, but on the other can cause negative attitudes toward the brand. There are also determinants with limited research such as influence of product or brand integration with the game on product (or brand) effectiveness.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IDENTIFICATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF CUSTOMERS OF THE POSTAL COMPANY ON THE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY OF ACCESS AND CONTACT POINTS OF THE PUBLIC POSTAL NETWORK 2019-02-20T12:03:56+01:00 Dominika Hoštáková <p>In today's globalized world, in the light of evolving electronic communications and alternative delivery methods, there is a decline in submitted consignments. Despite this fact, postal communications still play a significant role in distribution services. In order try to solve this problem, it is essential to identify the causes and the factors of postal market that affect a decline in submitted consignments. The goal of the article is to identify factors that influence the selection of a particular post office based on the customer requirements. To identify these factors, we conducted primary marketing research. Space availability as a major criterion is used for evaluation of the impact of the development of postal infrastructure on the economic level. Determining the criteria of spatial availability preferred by customers and their subsequent alignment with the statutory requirements can not only lead to an increase in the quality of the universal postal service but also to an increase in demand for postal services at certain post offices.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CHALLENGES IN PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH OF GHANA THROUGH VALUE ADDED EXPORTS 2019-02-20T12:03:55+01:00 Isaac Ibrahim Haiyun Liu <p>Ghana is endowed with natural resources such as gold, cocoa, crude oil, and other factor endowments that gives the country a comparative advantage in trade. Ghana, a low-middle income country, is the second largest producer of gold in Africa and 11<sup>th</sup> in the world, as well as the second largest exporter of cocoa in the world. With all the factor endowments and export potential however, the country exports basically raw materials with little value addition and therefore is deprived of the full benefits accruing to trade and exports.</p><p>This paper employs an empirical method and applies the Ricardian Model of Comparative Advantage using available secondary data to explore the importance of exports to the economic growth of the country and certain challenges of value addition. The findings show that exports promote economic growth as well as that value addition can be beneficial in earnings and needs government attention in following the recommendations therein.  <strong></strong></p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MANAGEMENT OF CONSOLIDATION PROCESSES IN RUSSIA: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS 2019-02-20T12:03:54+01:00 Tatiana Ignatova Antonina Pavlyukova Lyubov Boldyreva Svetlana Solonina This article argues that to assess the consolidation of the society and its elite, it is necessary to elaborate mechanisms of national security and the methodological instruments of dialectics. It will allow as the aim of the research attempt to be the determination of the measure and limits of consolidation and reconsolidation, and to find out their essential difference from the integration and reintegration of society. It is shown that the methodology of consolidation analysis of Russian society has its qualitative and quantitative measurements. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of consolidation allows to determine the essence of the category, its modern incarnation, trends of strengthening or weakening, as well as to present mechanisms of national security provision due to a modern stage of development. Consolidation is viewed as a specific case of integration of society and state preferences, society and personal interests, interests of different elites and the state as a whole. The efficiency of the implementation of social development principles depends mostly on the integration of society The principles would adopt differently aimed interests and consolidate platforms of the society. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## OHSAS 18001: 2007 IN THE PRACTICE OF BULGARIAN ORGANIZATIONS 2019-02-20T12:03:53+01:00 Radka Ivanova Using appropriate methods and management tools is a prerequisite for the effective functioning of any organization. Staff are particularly sensitive to the conditions under which they have to work, so employers should ensure compliance with specific rules and procedures, depending on the characteristics of the particular field of activity. In this regard, the implementation and certification of OHSAS 18001 is of great importance as the possession of a certificate can be considered as a guarantee of compliance with the relevant requirements. Therefore, in this paper we aim to present the main features of OHSAS 18001: 2007 currently in force as well as the peculiarities of the standard for a safe and healthy working environment which has been preparing since 2013 by the International Organization for Standardization under the name ISO 45001 Occupational health and safety management systems - Requirements with guidance for use. Currently, ISO 45001 is waiting for its completion and final publication, after which the process of transition from OHSAS 18001: 2007 to ISO 45001 will start, providing three years as a grace period for implementing the new requirements throughout organizations. We are also interested in the extent of the OHSAS 18001 standard dissemination among Bulgarian organizations, which is monitored in the sectorial and regional directions. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RISK ASSESSMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2019-02-20T12:03:51+01:00 Denisa Janasová Stanislava Strelcová The analysis and evaluation of risks are a decisive part of risk assessment in the risk management framework. Based on the results of the analysis and risk evaluation we can classify the risks as acceptable and unacceptable ones and subsequently manage them. The small and medium enterprises pay the analysis and risk evaluation the lowest attention. In our opinion this is linked with failing to utilise exact methods which seem to be complicated for their practical utilisation. They are not used especially for analysing and evaluating the risks which have their basis in epistemic uncertainty. The professional community has been discussing epistemic uncertainty for a long time. This assumption is valid mainly in the SMEs which have no competent person on the one hand and a shortage of information concerning the area assessed on the other hand. The main goal of this article is to assess the current state of implementing the process of analysing and evaluating the risk in the SMEs and to define the main problems from a questionnaire research carried out in 2017 in which 485 SMEs working in Slovakia took part. On the base of the conducted research, we can state that in spite of the fact that only high-quality risk assessment leads the companies to take suitable measures for risk reduction, the companies pay unadequate attention to the analysis and risk evaluation. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## POSSIBLE USE OF A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM WITHIN CRISIS MANAGEMENT SIMULATIONS 2019-02-20T12:03:49+01:00 Michaela Jánošíková Jozef Ristvej Maroš Lacinák <p>In this paper we deal with Global Information Systems (GIS) used within simulations of crisis management through the phases of the Crisis Management Cycle. In the first part of this paper we point out the short description of the phases and the possible use of GIS within these phases and in simulations within crisis management. In the second part we introduce the GIS in the Slovak Republic with focuses on use in crisis management. The third part is giving possibilities of the interconnections among simulation technologies and GIS within crisis management with a focus on the newly built Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation of Crisis Phenomena in Transport and in different environments. Within conclusions we would like to point out the possibilities for further discussions and directions within this interesting and important topic.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BRAND IMAGE AND THE FIGHT AGAINST COUNTERFEITING BY THE GUCCI COMPANY 2019-02-20T12:03:48+01:00 Anastazja Magdalena Kasztalska Gucci is a company that represents a modern approach to the image in the fashion industry. This article aims to answer the question of how taking care of brand imagine results in a higher company income. The research method used in this article is a survey made with the cooperation of buyers of the luxury brand Gucci. Unquestionably, there is a strong link between care for the brand image and fight against counterfeiting. Further research can be focused on an answering the question of how to prevent counterfeiting. Without a doubt, customers prefer brands that have a strong and unique brand image. Counterfeiting unfortunately puts in doubt the value of the brand and is an existing danger for the Gucci company. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## LOUIS VUITTON AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE OLD AND MODERN IN THE SAME TIME LUXURY BRAND IN THE EYES OF ITS CLIENTELE 2019-02-20T12:03:47+01:00 Anastazja Magdalena Kasztalska <p class="normal">Louis Vuitton is a brand that has exists for a very long time and it is the perfect example to visualize how a brand can develop itself according to the needs of modern consumers. The findings of this article show that when a brand changes but saves its main features, that comes from its history, it can gain more income. Louis Vuitton can generate income through the collaboration with young artists who lead the company to a success in the market of luxury fashion. The aim of this article is to show that the Louis Vuitton Brand use the same methods since years per years and they work well perfectly by increasing the income of the brand.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CONSTRUCTING A STARTUP STRATEGY FRAME 2019-02-20T12:03:46+01:00 Muhammad Rahatullah Khan Startup success is greatly attributed to pre-startup phase planning. Startups develop business plans to pitch their ideas to secure funding and/or partners. The task of reading and, relating the frameworks in the document, could be a long and cumbersome process. Similarly, there is no one page illustration that can sketch a startup’s strategy and plan as well as one that is used universally. A one page clear, concise and attractive startup strategy model a ‘startup frame’ is proposed detailing ideation to financial returns analysis. It is constructed on learnings from considerations of the design thinking approach, the business canvas along others. The frame has evolved over a period of 14 months in which two bootcamps were held. Bootcamps were attended by 266 participants. It has also been used by 28 students of a senior entrepreneurship undergraduate course (Launching Entrepreneurial Ventures) over two semesters. It provides a logical flow and connects value drivers on economic, operational and strategic levels of the startup. The frame enables identifying courses of action like, ‘Management of customer benefits (CBEN), Management of segmentation and the customer relationships (CREL), Segmentation of markets and customers (SEGM), Communication management (COMM), Strategic Goal Setting and Management (SGM), Competitor Analysis (CA), Developing Startup Frame (SF), Designing the Business, and Design Elements (DE)’. 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## METHODS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CYBER RISKS: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON PATENT DATA 2019-02-20T12:03:45+01:00 Lyubov Klapkiv Yurij Klapkiv <p>The problem of fast-rising cyber-risks become very important in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Cyber-risks cause not only high losses but also break the chain of economic relations between companies and their customers. Besides, cyber risks change their form and structure rapidly, so the tools of risk management must be adequate. That is why the problem of cyber-risk identification and assessment has gotten attention and become so actual. The purpose of this study is to outline new approaches to identifying and estimating cyber-risks based on the dates of the World International Property Organization (WIPO).  </p><p>In order to conduct our study, we will use various tools and techniques such as: citation analysis, cluster analysis, and visualization. We have analyzed the patent information from the groups of “Electric digital data processing”, “Transmission of digital information” and data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for financial purposes. In our findings, we analyze the technical and economic significance of patents.</p><p>Our work has led us to conclude that the number of methods of cyber risk identification that were the objects of applications granted by WIPO has a strong connection with the number of cyber-attacks from 2010 to 2017. That is why the innovative methods that were granted have a wide spectrum of influence and could be used in different stages of risk management. We selected patents that based on cyber risk identification and assessment from the data of WIPO and divided these patents into clusters. This helps us in understanding the trends and characters of innovative activities directed to successful management of cyber risks.</p> 2018-09-24T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PRODUCING OR PLAYING? INVESTIGATING INTERNET INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH 2019-02-20T12:03:44+01:00 Łukasz Konopielko Oleksandr Demchenko This paper is focused on determining the effects of increase in the Internet usage on economic development of two groups of countries: OECD and NON-OECD countries. Two separate Vector Autoregression models were used. The hypotheses were inspired by claims that GDP per capita and trade, including trade in services, have a positive correlation with Internet usage growth. The hypotheses were tested on a set of 26 OECD and 21 NON-OECD countries for a period of 20 years, from 1995 to 2015. Results of the paper do not confirm the existence of a direct positive correlation between GDP per capita and Internet users. For all countries, a direct comparison of the chosen variables show a negative correlation. For OECD countries, trade in services has a positive correlation with Internet usage growth, while for NON-OECD countries both trade and trade in services showed a positive correlation with Internet usage growth. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPARISON OF THE INDUSTRY 4.0 CONCEPT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES IN THE PERIOD OF GLOBALIZATION 2019-02-20T12:03:43+01:00 Martina Kováčiková Katarína Repková Štofková <p>Our society goes beyond the threshold of a new technological revolution, which will obviously affect the world economy, affect the life, work, communication of people and facilities. Significant features of the economy include the growth of market variability, the shortening of product lifecycles, the growth of global chain influences, but also the fact that current consumers demand products with individual solutions. Intelligent items, products, machines and devices will allow manufacturers to produce original products without increasing costs. Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution is the name for dramatic changes and their current entry into the industry. The bearer of these changes is product digitization, digitization and optimization of all business processes, including services. The period of globalization brings new challenges for businesses.</p><p>This contribution is focused on the characteristics of Industry 4.0, the tools used for the area in question, the advantages and disadvantages of Industry 4.0 and the Industry 4.0 initiative concept and the comparison of the concept with the Czech Republic and Germany. The Czech Republic is geographically and culturally close to Slovakia, while Germany is the leader in this area within the EU.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SUPPORTING SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES IN SPECIFIC SERVICES WITHIN SLOVAKIA 2019-02-20T12:03:41+01:00 Jozef Kubás Viktor Šoltés Katarína Repková Štofková Providing private security is considered a specific type of business service, primarily carried out by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This specific type of business complements the state services in the field of internal security. State institutions support the creation of small- and medium-sized enterprises through targeted subsidies. The principal goal of this paper is to describe the business environment within Slovakia, focusing on small and medium enterprises providing services of private security. The secondary aim of the paper is to explain the support available for such business through subsidies from public authorities. The number of enterprises that provide services of private security, along with the number of their employees, is relevant. The outputs of the paper can be used as part of the analysis of the competitive environment by subsidy applicants who plan to operate in this specific area. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE OPTIMIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES OF A MUNICIPAL POLICE 2019-02-20T12:03:40+01:00 Jozef Kubás Viktor Šoltés Zuzana Štofková Public administration in Slovakia is organized on three levels, one of which is self-government. A local self-administration is defined as a territorial self-government, which is lower on the hierarchy than a regional government. In the Republics of Slovak and Czech, local self-government consists of municipals of privileged entities or incorporations that are attempting to achieve the most secure environment for their citizens. Obtaining this status is possible with a sufficient local budget to form and use services of municipal police. The municipal police force is a disciplinary unit within an area of its territory. In study is the possibility of improving the municipal police of the Slovak Republic. To identify limitations, the Slovak municipal police force is compared with that of another nation exercising activities under similar conditions. For this purpose, the municipal police force of the Czech Republic is compared with that of the Slovak Republic using various indicators. The results show several weaknesses of the municipal police force of Slovak Republic and recommendations are provided to improve its effectiveness. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PRACTICES AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH 2019-02-20T12:03:39+01:00 Aneta Kucińska Landwójtowicz <p class="Streszczenie">Continuous Improvement is a concept recognized in literature and management practice as essential in today's business environment. This article deals with the analysis of the importance and placement of project management in the implementation and application of Continuous Improvement (CI) practices in manufacturing companies. The first part of the article presents the conclusions resulting from the literature review of the improvement projects management. The problems appearing in this area of the organization's activity were analyzed. Then are presented the results of the empirical research carried out in the production company. A case study has allowed the characteristics of the realized projects to be determined and the identification of the factors that are conducive to and obstructive to the achievements of their objectives.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF ALBANIA 2019-02-20T12:03:38+01:00 Elda Kuka Public sector organizations are in the early stages of adopting information security management in Albania. Organizations who have adopted these processes have underestimated information security within the governance framework. This study specifically investigates the information security management within public sector organizations. Its objective is to align local organizations with international standards and frameworks in terms of integrating information security management and information technology audits, risks, and control measures. A survey of selected organizations is completed and results are presented in this paper identifying the maturity level of information security management in Albanian organizations<em>.</em> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EMPLOYEES’ EXTRINSIC MOTIVES AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING: INTERVENING ROLE OF AN INTRINSIC MOTIVE 2019-02-20T12:03:37+01:00 Ravindra Hewa Kuruppuge Aleš Gregar Ladislav Kudláček Chandana Jayawardena <p>Drives of knowledge sharing in businesses not only arise extrinsically from employees but also intrinsically. Accordingly, this study focuses on examining the effect of employee’s organizational identification (intrinsic motive) on the relationship between the organizational climate (extrinsic motive) and employee’s knowledge sharing in family businesses in Sri Lanka. Measures of organizational climate, organizational identification, and knowledge sharing were collected by a questionnaire survey of 126 employees working in family businesses. Stratified random sampling technique selected respondents from diverse firms and jobs. While descriptive and correlation analysis elaborated the sample characteristics, the results of the hierarchical regression indicated that extrinsic motivational factors of organizational climate have strong positive relations to employees’ knowledge sharing. Additionally, results confirmed that employees’ intrinsic motivational factor of organizational identification mediates the relationship between organizational climate and employees’ knowledge sharing. Theoretically, this study contributes to linking employees’ extrinsic and intrinsic motives of knowledge sharing in family business context to expand the employees’ behavioural theories. Practically, managers of family businesses would find new avenues to promote employees’ knowledge sharing.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EVOLUTION OF THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR MARKETING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW ECONOMY FORMATION 2019-02-20T12:03:36+01:00 Nataliya G. Larkina Georgi V. Ovcharenko Alexei V. Tagaev <p>New paradigms affect major economic patterns and categories. This article discusses the semantic meaning of the evolution of marketing under the direction of socio-ecological processes in a new economy and grounds new understanding of the function of marketing. Authors provide a number of statements considering different views on the marketing essence, its ideas, and purpose. Moreover, the article describes a new approach to the specifics of innovative marketing in a neo-information society in a new economy. Authors give clear examples of innovative marketing in the context of a certain company and industry. The study concludes that the evolution of marketing indicates the real need for the development and creation of innovative marketing NEO-tools to determine the noo-sphere development of society. </p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WORK RELATED VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT RELATIVE TO GENDER AND AGE 2019-02-20T12:03:35+01:00 Agnieszka Leszczynska This article discusses issues related to organizational commitment and work related values. The research problem focuses on the correlation between values related to professional work and the affective, normative and calculative commitment of employees. A research question was posed as to what work related values are correlated with organisational commitment. The article presents the results of an empirical study conducted on a group of 2076 people with the use of a diagnostic survey. The obtained data were analysed relative to the gender and age of the respondents. The results indicate certain discrepancies in terms of the value hierarchies observable between employees of different ages. Both men and women selected work-life balance and security as their most important values. The level of commitment was comparable between representatives of the two genders, with the levels observed for normative commitment. Organisational commitment increased with age and was statistically different for the respective age groups. The study confirmed the correlation between the hierarchy of work related values and the level of commitment, as well as the discrepancies in this respect between the respective age and gender groups. The same suggests that there is a need to account for values held by the employees when developing and employing motivational systems and HR practices. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE CHALLENGES OF FORMALIZATION AND MODELING OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY 2019-02-20T12:03:34+01:00 Ivars Linde Mariana Petrova <p>This study is aimed at the analysis and development of methodologies to ensure and manage the quality of higher education. There have been radical changes and transformation of the postindustrial society into a global information society on the basis of knowledge and competence, and the increased external demands from society to the result of higher education have significantly influenced the development of higher education at the end of the 20th century. Accordingly, the roles, organizational forms and ways of functioning of higher education institutions (HEIs) have changed as one of the basic elements of the higher education system, ensuring the development of economic, social, cultural and global, national and regional communities as a whole. The current system of education is characterized by the virtual absence of institutions responsible for the results of their activities. Not sufficiently independent forms and mechanisms of participation of citizens, employers, professional associations on the development of educational policy have not been developed. There are no structures for an independent assessment of the quality of education.</p><p>As a result of adaptation to the global information society, the classical model of the HEI was transformed, which manifested itself in the formation of a new type of HEI. The vector of transformation of the models of HEI were not only accompanied by diverse organizational change and revisions of the missions of universities, but also by the formation of strategic management as a factor in-system with the release of its organizational and functional entity. In the article, as a form of presentation of scientific methodologies of social processes and objects, a triad hierarchical model is proposed, represented in the form of a hierarchical system containing levels: system, structure, inter-system exchange, movement and applied fields of knowledge. Thus, the essence of the approach is to develop a triadic concept and its application to describe the structures of social objects and processes and construct different classes of models to study their properties and improve management processes, taking into account the human factor.</p><p>In the future, the proposed methodology can provide the most appropriate solution to ensure a comprehensive and high-quality higher education.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EVALUATION OF THE EXPEDIENCY’S DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT OF SMALL INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:03:33+01:00 Anzhela Litvinova Denis Paleev <p>This article analyzes the situation of innovative approaches to building business processes and interaction between universities, the government,  and representatives of the business environment. A methodology is proposed by the authors for calculating the feasibility of government support for small innovative enterprises (SIEs) as independent small business entities organized at higher educational institutions of the Russian Federation, the activities of which are aimed at research, development, implementation, and commercialization.</p><p>The importance and role of small innovative entrepreneurship in the economy of the country and large cities is becoming the main world trend. Russia is trying to match its innovation strategy in small business, but the success is, unfortunately, still negligible. On the part of the government, millions of rubles are allocated to support small innovative entrepreneurship, as well as the construction of technology parks, the creation of business incubators, technological laboratories, and platforms being organized at universities in order to ensure the implementation of innovative projects. In accordance with the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 217-FL of August 2, 2009, universities were able to register small innovative enterprises on their territory as independent small businesses in the sphere of innovative development, whose activities are focused mainly on the commercialization of intellectual property objects and their active promotion in the market.</p><p>Nevertheless, the implementation of new technologies and know-how is associated with greater risks of SIEs and needs a methodical approach to assess the appropriateness of providing government support to such enterprises. We are going to consider and calculate the indicator of the feasibility of government support for a small innovative enterprise in the amount of 50 million rubles for a period of five years for its development and will prove the increase in the efficiency of the enterprise and the possibilities for its development through the government support mechanisms for innovations.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FINANCIAL LITERACY SYSTEM IN RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:03:32+01:00 Svetlana A. Litvinova <p class="Default">The article touches upon the issues of financial literacy development in Russia. The author considers financial literacy as a set of procedures that build up the system of financial literacy institution development including financial inclusion, an increase in financial literacy and a strengthening of the protection of consumers’ rights in regard to financial services. The author presents research findings that indicate a poor financial literacy level in Russia. The key conclusion reflects the goal of the paper: the development of the financial literacy system depends on the demand for innovative financial services and the measures taken by the government to develop the financial literacy system.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STRATEGY OF INCLUSIVE ECONOMY PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2019-02-20T12:03:31+01:00 Oleg V. Lokota Andrey V. Burov Ekaterina M. Medyakova The potential of the concept of inclusive sustainable growth and the opportunity of the effective implementation of this concept by means of the application of a project management framework are investigated in this article on the basis of the analysis of world practice and peculiarities of the current state of the national economy. The article presents some historical highlights on inclusive economy development both in Russia and abroad as well as peculiarities and benefits of project management as a key approach in achieving of inclusive growth. As a result, authors presented the 4-layer model of indicators to evaluate and adjust the inclusive development. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEASING INDUSTRY IN THE ALBANIAN MARKET. AN OVERVIEW OF THE LAST 20 YEARS FROM LEGAL FRAMEWORK TO PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 2019-02-20T12:03:30+01:00 Fatjola Lubonja Financial leasing, known as well as the financial rent, has been available in the Albanian market since 2005 although most of the leasing operating companies have only been registered since 2009. Even though in developing countries financial leasing is widely available and growing considerably, in the case of Albania this product has faced difficulties in getting recognition in the eyes of the public. Based on the European practices, small and middle enterprises compose 99% of the operating businesses in Albania and these types of enterprises are among the main users of leasing in Europe, about 50%. These elements are exactly what made leasing an alternative to financial borrowing even though financial leasing yet has an unused potential compared to loans and other forms of financing. This article aims to give a general description of the meaning of financial leasing, the legal and the regulatory framework in which this form of financing has been applied in Albania and further provide several conclusions that will focus on the factors that are expected to affect the future of financial leasing in Albania. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DISCLOSURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION FOR THE EXAMPLE OF BULGARIAN THERMAL POWER PLANTS 2019-02-20T12:03:29+01:00 Tsvetomir L. Manolov <p>Growing pressure on businesses to disclose environmental information also implies an increase in the volume of such disclosures. This article is an attempt to present the guidelines and to assess the levels of environmental information disclosure in Bulgaria.</p><p>Companies, which were identified as the most responsible for air pollution, are thermal power plants. We have studied only these, which produce electricity. A checklist, containing 17 environmental performance assessment criteria, was developed and was completed based on the information, disclosed in the companies' annual financial statements, their activity reports and their websites. Based on a comparative analysis of the quantitative and qualitative information, disclosed by examined companies, we discovered that most companies disclose quantity environmental information, largely neglecting qualitive information. Taking into account the character of their activity, they should disclose more environmental information, especially qualitive information.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EFFECTS OF INNOVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RUSSIAN FIRMS: DOES SIZE MATTER? 2019-02-20T12:03:28+01:00 Oleg S. Mariev Andrey A. Pushkarev <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of a number of external factors on the productivity of individual enterprises in the Urals Federal District. As the main analysis tool, a panel regression with fixed effects at the firm level is used. The paper considers both Ural enterprises in general, and their individual subgroups, separated by their size.</p><p>The main results of the work are as follows. There is a positive impact of the number of patent applications per capita and technology imports on the company’s productivity, with greater effects observed in medium sized firms, while in small and micro sized firms, the results are less significant. This, as well as the negative impact of spending on innovation on the dependent variable, may indicate an inadequate level of development of basic industries, which in turn slows the growth rates of all the companies, irrespective of their size. The obtained results are proposed to be used as a recommendation for the construction and improvement of the regional innovation policy.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PROJECT RISK IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW PRODUCT IN ENTERPRISE IN SLOVAKIA 2019-02-20T12:03:27+01:00 Matej Masár Mária Hudáková Enterprises want to focus on successfully managed projects. Projects must be focused on fulfilling project expectations and setting project objectives. It is necessary to ensure the early identification of project risks. If managers understand and know project risks, they can mitigate them. They can use mitigation to prevent projects from failing, or financial loses in the company. The main aim of this paper is the identification of project risks of a new product in a particular company in the Slovak Republic using the method of brainstorming. Risks can positively but mainly negatively affect the implementation of the proposed project. The proposed project was created based on the methods of analysis, forecasting, comparison, synthesis and provided information from a specific enterprise. The identified risks are grouped into the specified project implementation categories, in order to better identify the identified risks as well as to implement other project risk management steps. The results of the study show that early identification of project risks should be a responsibility for project team members, for top managers and the corporate culture of each enterprise. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EMPLOYMENT OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AS A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INITIATIVE: NECESSITY AND VARIANTS OF IMPLEMENTATION 2019-02-20T12:03:26+01:00 Boris Miethlich Ľudomír Šlahor Although companies recognize and promote the benefits of a diverse corporate culture, persons with disabilities (PWD), are more likely to be unemployed. Using secondary sources of information, this paper examines the need to address the employment of PWD as part of a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy, highlighting various implementation measures and variants. It shows that the employment of PWD can only be promoted by companies themselves. Measures at the national and international levels have so far shown little success. For a successful implementation, an obligation in the CSR strategy is not enough, measures need to be described explicitly. At its core, it is always necessary to remove physical and mental barriers in the company in order to enable the employment of PWD. The adaptation of CSR initiatives concerning the employment of PWD should be further investigated. The research should particularly focus on “best practice” approaches from business practice. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SPECIAL ASPECTS OF THE MODERN WORLD ECONOMY: TRANSITION FROM A UNIPOLAR TO A MULTIPOLAR WORLD SYSTEM 2019-02-20T12:03:25+01:00 Irina V. Minakova Tatyana N. Bukreeva Оlga I. Solodukhina Оlga G. Timofeeva <p>This paper reveals the consequences of the unipolar system of the world economy provided by the United States leadership in the military-technological, financial-economic, geopolitical and information-ideological spheres. It was established that after the collapse of the socialist camp, the concepts of ‘humanitarian intervention’ and ‘spreading democracy’ were brought to the forefront. In practice, Western European countries have demonstrated their readiness to judge the solutions of domestic political disputes in other countries of the world, especially when it comes to geopolitically important countries. A series of ‘colour revolutions’ have become a demonstration of this policy. Therefore, the globalization of the modern world does not mean the homogenization of development indicators of countries’, but instead leads to further delamination and inequality. The gap between the world leaders and the rest of the world in terms of indicators reflecting the dynamics of the standard of living, the quality of life, scientific and technological progress, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, has significantly increased.</p><p>It is illustrated that attempts of the US to consolidate its hegemony in the form of ‘leadership’ in the world had led to the erosion of international legal principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter. Therefore, the United States attempts to solve the problems in Iraq and Afghanistan unilaterally has failed.The objective and subjective signs of a global restructuring of the existing unipolar world system are revealed.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE STUDY OF GROWTH FACTORS OF THE PROFIT ORIENTED BUSINESS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 2019-02-20T12:03:24+01:00 Sergey Oparin Nikolay Chepachenko Marina Yudenkо Irina Kuzovleva <span lang="EN-US">This study concluded that the problems of economic growth are determined by a number of factors, the main of which are – economic, industrial, technological, institutional, non-economic. The article focuses on the analysis of institutional factors which regulate companies’ activities by reducing the impact of administrative barriers. This article identifies the role of economic efficiency and its influence on the economic growth of the construction industry businesses. This article offers a method of profit calculation by the reduction of transaction costs. This method is adapted to the construction sector, which features a number of independent and related fields, a large number of participants of the construction process and institutions that altogether lead to the occurrence of administrative barriers. The calculations that were done confirm that the reduction of transaction costs affects the efficiency of construction companies. The resulting extra profit, from reducing the transaction costs, is a source of economic growth for companies in the construction industry.</span> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE GROWTH OF THE NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2019-02-20T12:03:23+01:00 Ivan Otto Juraj Vaculík Nikolas Žáčik <span lang="EN-US">Transport and delivery of shipments in the shortest possible time should be a priority for any company working in the field of postal and logistics services. The aim of this paper is to point to an annual increase in the number of registered motor vehicles in the Slovak Republic. The first part of the paper contains a test of statistical hypotheses and in the second part estimates the future growth of motor vehicles in 2017. The paper highlights the increased growth of motor vehicles in the Slovak Republic registry. The final part contains a proposal for a new way of delivery of shipments.</span> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY CONCEPT: CASE OF A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, ALBANIA 2019-02-20T12:03:22+01:00 Bruna Papa <p>Today, the role of universities has changed and universities are not being only seen as creators and transmitters of knowledge but also as institutions that give innovative answers to economic and social challenges of society. The entrepreneurial university model is referred to many as the “Ideal state” of a university in responding efficiently and effectively to challenges and opportunities and being able to be competitive in today’s environment of universities by fulfilling the university’s “third mission”. Even though many definitions exist for the concept of an entrepreneurial university, an overall common definition is lacking due to the fact that each institution follows a unique transformation path which is influenced by various economic and social factors of the environment they operate. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the understating of the above mentioned definition of an entrepreneurial university, how this concept is viewed in public higher education institutions in Albania and to identify which are the most important factors that might facilitate or serve as barriers for Higher Education Institutions (HEI-s) that might want to move towards this institutional approach. A questionnaire was distributed to academics in 5 higher public institutions in Albania and received 372 responses. An empirical study was conducted to contribute to the literature on the entrepreneurial university aspects with a specific focus on Albanian Higher Education Institutions. The results show that even in Albania, a common accepted definition is lacking. Factors such as cooperation with the private sector, appropriate reward systems, presence of role models and flexible structures are among the most important facilitators. While a lack of funding and inadequate links with the private sector are seen as the greatest barriers for public HEIs in Albania in becoming entrepreneurial institutions.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INVESTMENTS IN MEDIUM, SMALL AND MICRO ENTERPRISES IN RUSSIAN REGIONS 2019-02-20T12:03:21+01:00 Iuliia Pinkovetskaia Olga Kiseleva <strong>The paper aim is an assessment of the investments into the fixed capital of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the influence on them by factors such as size categories and territorial placement. The object of the study is the consideration of all (SMEs) that are located in each of the regions of Russia. The used data is from the official statistical observation of investment data of all Russian SMEs for 2015 in 82 regions. The comparative analysis of investments in the fixed capital of SMEs is based on relative indicators: investments which are calculated per one enterprise and per employee. Modeling was based on the functions of a normal distribution. We defined the values investments in SMEs which located in all Russian regions and related to three size categories and six types of activity; revealed regularities of distribution of investments calculated per enterprise and per worker; identified the regions with low investments in SMEs. New knowledge of the investment in the fixed capital in the Russian SMEs was achieved. The results of the study, namely new knowledge and tools for assessing production activities of small and medium enterprises in the regions, are of scientific and practical importance. The methodical approach can be used in the future studies and in the education potential entrepreneurs and students. The research results can be used by government and regional authorities to monitor the efficiency of investment in fixed assets, as well as the implementation of a Federal strategy for SMEs development for the period up to 2030.</strong> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MODELING THE VOLUME OF PRODUCTION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:03:20+01:00 Iuliia Pinkovetskaia The object of the study is the consideration of all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that are located in each of the regions of Russia. The purpose of the research is the evaluation of two-factor production functions that describe the dependence of the production volume of SMEs from the wage of employees and the fixed assets. The data for this reaseach was obtained from the official statistical observation of activities of all Russian SMEs in the 82 regions of Russia for 2015. The study allowed to determine the factors influencing turnover of SMEs located in all regions, to prove the high quality of approximation of the initial data by the two-factor production functions.  The functions which were determined show that the economy of the regions of the country have not yet reached a saturation point with the goods and services of SMEs, and that they have increasing returns of scale in production in addition to considerable reserves for further development. Because sum of the degree values in the coefficients of the production functions is more than 1 and with the increase of both factors production growth is faster than the factors growth.  The results of the study, namely new knowledge and tools for assessing production activities of small and medium enterprises in the regions, are of scientific and practical importance.  They  can be used by government and regional authorities to monitor the efficiency of investment in fixed assets and work resources, as well as the implementation of the Federal strategy for SMEs development for the period up to 2030. The methodology that were used in the research process can be applied to similar researches in countries with a significant amount of territorial (administrative) units. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BASIC DIRECTIONS OF THE THIRD SECTOR STRUCTUREDNESS 2019-02-20T12:03:19+01:00 Maxim Ponomarev Alexander Ponomarev Alexandra Ponomareva Darya Yurchenko <strong>The article proposes a number of criteria that allow the systematization of non-commercial organizations in order to reflect the essense of their economic activities. It is necessary to structure the formation, development and functioning of non-profit organizations, taking into account such characteristics as economic goals, differentiation of types of activities, property formation sources, economic and financial criteria for activity, technology, management, etc.</strong> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IMPROVING THE STAFF DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS UNDER DIGITAL ECONOMY CONDITIONS 2019-02-20T12:02:18+01:00 Ekaterina A. Popova Ekaterina M. Medyakova Zlataslava S. Martemyanova The ongoing improvement of public structures and relationships increasingly based on modern digital technologies causing exponential growth of data flows puts a focus on digitalization issues. Digitalization as a world trend of modern development forms a new type of economy with relations over the production, processing, storage, transfer, and use of increasing amounts of data becoming dominant. In this regard, we identify an increasing interest in the development of personnel. More and more companies tend to create conditions for continuous training of their employees. At the same time, organizations that have been engaged in staff development for a significant period, increasingly focus on ways to improve the staff efficiency in the context of modernization, leading to the need for a thorough study of staff development tools in digital economy. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SCIENCE COLLABORATION AS A MODERN INSTITUTION FOR DEVELOPING STATE MANAGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:02:17+01:00 Ekaterina Popova Elena Zolochevskaya Anastasiya Morozova In the contemporary context of scientific and technical development, the tendency to form science collaborations is of particular importance. The main driving force in developing a knowledge economy and an information society as intellectual capital is a tool aimed at creating and accumulating knowledge, improving creative skills and abilities, and solving strategic state problems. The low level of coordination between the activities of public authorities and scientific structures has led to an urgent need for integrative capacities in the form of scientific collaborations. The article highlights features of development of these associations, providing an effective modern system of public administration in the fields of science, technology, and innovation, and increasing the appeal of investing in research and development and assist in competitiveness and economic security of the country. Authors analyzed factors limiting the realization of intellectual potential and contributing to the formation of actual intellectual framework as well as trends of development of scientific collaborations in Russia. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBALIZATION 2019-02-20T12:02:17+01:00 Eteri Rubinskaya Under the conditions of globalization the role and the place of international migration within the system of the world economy are experiencing many changes. International labor migration today is characterized not as much by enlargement or by the increased number of countries engaged in the international migratory processes, but more by changes in the structure and dynamics of migration flows which, in their turn, are one of the manifestations of the changing demands of countries at their post-industrial stage of development. In this article, we make an attempt to determine the chronology of development for the process of globalization of the world’s economy in parallel to also determining the specificity of international migration at each of these stages. We have found, inter alia, that international migration is a large-scale, multi-factor and highly dynamic socioeconomic phenomenon and is also a vital factor of influence upon the demographic development and economic growth of countries since it promotes and supports the ongoing process of globalization. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF WORK EFFICIENCY IN HARD COAL MINING IN POLAND 2019-02-20T12:02:16+01:00 Aurelia Rybak Ewelina Włodarczyk <p>Motivation: This article presents the analysis of work efficiency in hard coal mining in Poland. Labour costs in Polish mining enterprises account for over 40% of the total production cost. For this reason, the labour productivity of employees has a key impact on the final operating profit.</p><p>Problem statement: In the case of Polish coal companies, the efficiency is the index value of which particular restructuration programs have attempted to increase for years. However, because of the effect of overstaffing and a decrease in hard coal exploitation, the task was impossible.</p><p>Approach and results: In this article the effects of the latest recovery programme have been presented, the production efficiency index has been determined; the rate of changes in production volume has been presented as well as the employment figure and the average salary in the Polish mining industry in the recent decade.  Moreover, the prognosis of the employment figure using the ARIMA and ARMAX class model was conducted.</p><p>Conclusions: It should be noted that in the last four years a significant reduction in the employment figure has been onserved in the hard coal mining industry. This figure has been adjusted to the production volume level.  This, in turn, has positively influenced the work efficiency coefficient level.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INCOME AND QUALITY OF LIFE INFLUENCE ON CITIZENS' PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN LATVIA 2019-02-20T12:02:15+01:00 Baiba Šavriņa Lilita Seimuškāne <p>The aim of the paper is to analyse the factors influencing the citizen participation in activities of local governments in relation to quality of life in Latvia. The use of the CLEAR model, elaborated by a group of British researchers under guidance of Gerry Stoker, shows the possibilities of participation and engagement of citizens based on theoretical aspects. Latvia, as a member state of the EU, needs to develop and to involve more citizens in different social activities, since it has comparatively small experience in democratic processes due to its past of 50 years being a part of another country — the Soviet Union. The opportunities to participate in the European Parliament’s election and to promote the resolution of common issues or questions specific for the country can be one of the ways for expressing life priorities. Historical heritage is still influencing the priorities of population, such as changes in income level and possibilities to increase the quality of life, have a strong impact on the perception of citizens. By using the concept of a welfare state and a welfare economy, it is possible to explain the enlargement of areas of citizens’ interaction. Unbalanced regional development with a huge impact on the capital city in the national economy and in the number of inhabitants concentrated in Rīga that amounts to a third of the total population with important differences in income level and quality of life has profound influence on other regions and the interests of inhabitants to participate in local governmental activities. The factors, which affect this engagement, are analysed by using primary and secondary data. The main conclusions are: 1) there is more active citizens participating in the activities of local government than in the election of the European Parliament due to faster and more visible results in solving problems, 2) the global financial crisis strongly affected the participation level, the changes of economic conjuncture have an important impact on the participation of citizens 3) imbalance in regional development is reflected by the level of participation, since there is a higher level of participation in economically favourable regions. </p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE NEED FOR CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF INTERNSHIP FOR THE CHINESE SUBSIDIARY OF DANONE 2019-02-20T12:02:14+01:00 Irina Sidorcuka Madina Nigmatullaeva Multinational corporations with subsidiaries worldwide are challenged by the need to communicate with and manage people different in their beliefs, behaviors, cultural values. This paper is focused on the case of Chinese interns in Danone, France. Danone is facing a severe shortage of skilled workforce in China for that reason that the company is willing to “groom” professionals externally for their Chinese subsidiary by engaging Chinese studens in internship programs within its headquarters in France. Despite the high number of Chinese students joining the internship programme each year, only few of them demonstrate a willingness to join the company upon accomplishment of the internship. Therefore the task of this study was to investigate the reasons behind such poor motivation of Chinese interns to stay in Danone through an analysis of French and Chinese cultural dimensions, proposed by key researchers in the field, as well as the empirical research of Chinese interns dissatisfaction causes through qualitative and quantitative research. The study reveals the key cultural values and attitudes of Chinese interns that have caused their dissatisfaction within french management and demonstrates that there is a mismatch between the expectations and preferencies of Chineses interns in communication and networking, time management, job distribution and staff reward and other job-related issues and the way these are dealt with in Danone. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE INFLUENCE OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS ON THE DEMAND OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS AT LATVIAN FOOD RETAIL CHAINS 2019-02-20T12:02:14+01:00 Daina Šķiltere Santa Bormane Research background: There are a number of product-related tools subject to regulation by state authorities and controlled by subordinate authorities. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, novelties in the legislation, government regulations and other regulatory enactments would enable the state to not only enhance the assortment of sustainable products at food retail chains, but also to raise the awareness of consumers, thus also triggering changes in demand for sustainable (ecological, environment-friendly, high-quality) products. Consumers lack information on the characteristics of the products purchased; they are not knowledgeable about the nutritional value, packaging, raw materials, their impact on human health and environment, re-use and recycling possibilities etc. For instance, the labelling of products may serve not only as a tool of integrated marketing communications drawing the consumers' attention and inciting a purchase, but also – through the information it carries – improve the consumers' knowledge on the product, its nutritional value, use and utilisation. Based on the national legislation and focusing on product-related tools, food retail chains in communication with their consumers may promote and boost the sales of ecological products. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of product-related tools of integrated marketing communications on product demand at Latvian food retail chains. The subject of the research are product-related IMC tools; and the object of the research are Latvian food retail chains. The research makes use of the results of the study conducted by the authors in 2017. The authors used company data and surveyed leading specialists at Latvian food retail chains. In order to accomplish the goal and objectives, the authors used the following quantitative and qualitative methods of economic research – survey, comparison, and grouping. The study is based on scientific papers published by Latvian and foreign scholars, general and special literature, and periodicals. The authors conducted an assessment, a market investigation, a comparative analysis, held a survey, and used the MS Excel software for data processing and analysis. The findings of the research confirmed the hypothesis that the product-related tools of integrated marketing communications foster demand for sustainable products and, consequently, assortment at retail chains. The results of the research are of both theoretical and practical value. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY OF INDIVIDUALS AND LEGAL ENTITIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 2019-02-20T12:02:13+01:00 Tatyana Skvortsova Аnna Nikitina Mustafa Ansari Margarita Tertyshnikova Entrepreneurial activity is pursued by large, medium and small business entities which can be introduced by individuals – individual entrepreneurs and legal entities – commercial and non-profit organizations. The entrepreneurial activity of these entities is regulated by the rules of law which may cause problems in law enforcement resulting in the improvement of legal regulation. The article provides a review of some legal regulation issues of entrepreneurial activities of non-profit organizations, the analysis of peculiarities of economic activity exercised by these organizations and covers the problems of differentiation between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial activities that individuals are engaged in. The authors analyze the problem of relations between the concepts of "entrepreneurial activity" and "income-generating activities" which requires a solution by means of elaborating a strategy for existing legislation improvement to prevent situations that violate the rights and legal interests of entities in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPARISON OF THE TAX BURDEN OF A SELECTED TAXPAYER GROUP IN THE SLOVAK AND CZECH REPUBLICS 2019-02-20T12:02:12+01:00 Natália Stalmašeková Jana Štofková Tatiana Genzorová The tax system is nowadays an important tool that can greatly influence the economy of every country. Its proper setup and the setup of all its parts is an extremely important task. This system has the task of raising funds for the state budget through the collection of taxes. The tax system is constantly evolving over time and adapts to the changing needs of the country. The aim of the paper is to compare the tax burden of a selected taxpayer group in the Slovak and Czech Republics. Part of the paper is an analysis of the conditions under which a taxpayer can benefit from a tax exemption and when he is required to pay contributions to the Social Insurance Company. The paper refers to the possibilities of advantageous application of tax rules to specific groups of taxpayers. The paper also includes specific examples of such situations. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A COMPANY'S REVENUE USING TIME SERIES 2019-02-20T12:02:11+01:00 Alexandru Eugen Stătescu <p>Economic and financial analysis is a method of knowing the mechanism of formation and modification of the economic phenomena through their decomposition into their component elements and by identifying the factors of influence. The object of the decomposition into elements or factors may be a result (structural analysis), or a change in the result from a basis of comparison (causal analysis).</p><p>Revenue is the inflow of economic benefits during the reporting period resulted in the ordinary activity of the company as assets increase or decrease in debt that build equity excluding gains from property company contributions.</p><p>The purpose of this paper is to analyze, using statistical research methods, the evolution of the income of a state owned company. For this it will be used the data from the Income and Expense Budget of METROREX S.A. on a 10-year horizon. In order to analyze the time evolution of the enterprise's revenue, it will be used the chronological series analysis methodology, the set of data from the mentioned source (namely the Income and Expense Budget of METROREX SA) and will design an econometric model with a trend and residual variable component.</p><p>Time series is a form of orderly presentation of statistical data which reflect the manifestation of phenomena in a given moment or time. In other words, the time series is a sequence of values of an economic indicator or other observed over time, reflecting the process of change and development of a statistical sample in successive periods of time.</p><p>Also the purpose of this paper is to build an ARMA model that fits in an appropriate way the evolution of the revenue’s time series.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES OF STUDENTS OF SELECTED PUBLIC UNIVERSITY 2019-02-20T12:02:11+01:00 Zuzana Štofková Iveta Sedláková Peter Seemann <p>This paper deals with key competences of students and graduates at a selected public university with an economic orientation in the Slovak Republic. The students expect from the University to have access to quality education, but also after finishing their studies to be able to apply them in practice. The businesses and organizations expect from university graduates to be equipped with competencies needed to develop their businesses and maintain their competitiveness. This paper discusses the equipment of graduates with general competencies such as knowledge, skills, abilities, values and attitudes, as well as managerial competencies such as communication, planning, organization and control, analytical thinking, creativity, problem solving, management and leadership, teamwork, flexibility and digital skills, etc. The paper presents the results of a survey focused on the scope of skills and competencies of the graduates of the University of Žilina, the Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, the Economics and Business Management study program. There the student´s profile is managerial oriented and the range of skills and competencies are considered to be the key factors for university graduates to be employed in a modern society.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE WATER SECTOR THROUGH PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN BULGARIA 2019-02-20T12:02:10+01:00 Zornitsa Stoyanova Hristina Harizanova-Bartos Ivelina Petkova <p> Issues related to the water sector and the achievement of an integrated sustainable management of water resources are of interest to many researchers and practitioners. The need for effective solutions for water resources requires the use of project management to achieve sustainability in the sector. The aim of the paper is to assess the possibilities for achieving sustainability through project management in the water sector and on this basis to propose recommendations for sustainable and integrated water resources management.</p><p>The paper presents a literature review of achieving sustainability in the water sector. The analytical part of the article includes an assessment of the respondents’ opinion for achieving sustainability in the water sector based on structured interviews. On this basis proposals for achieving sustainable and integrated water resource management through projects are made. The results in the paper are related to the determination of the factors for achieving sustainability in the water sector and the benefits from the water projects. On this basis are outlined opportunities for overcoming the constrains in front of the water projects. The paper presents part of the university scientific research project NID NI 1-7/2015 “Project management of sustainable development in water sector”.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE COST AS THE MAIN DETERMINANT OF THE LOCATION OF LOGSTICS CENTERS 2019-02-20T12:02:09+01:00 Agnieszka Tłuczak Sabina Kauf <p>Apropriate location of the logistics center allows entrepreneurs to significantly reduce the costs of transport. On the other hand, it has a positive impact on the development of the transport infrastructure of the region.</p><p>This paper presents the practical aspects of the localization problem of logistics center with the use of a geographic information system. It shows differences between theoretical models, the needs of decision-makers, and the data available to make the necessary calculations. The results of computational experiments were introduced to illustrate the effects of this approach.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYZING AND CHOOSING THE TARGET SEGMENTS OF THE MARKET FOR CARGO FREIGHT TRANSPORT SERVICES 2019-02-20T12:02:08+01:00 Svetla Tzvetkova <p>In order to attract more customers, transport enterprises strive towards providing transport services that fully meet their marketing criteria for quality. However, transport enterprises are not always capable of fully satisfying customers’ needs. Therefore, when choosing their “own” customers, transport enterprises need to develop a program for segmenting the transport market by recognizing its real capabilities for performing marketing events. The segmentation criteria depend on the economic and geographical peculiarities of the region, the development of transport infrastructure, the peculiarities of management and the transport enterprise’s capabilities.</p><p>The report indicates the main stages of conducting effective segmentation of the cargo transport market. The necessity for analyzing the competitive advantages of enterprises working in a specific region has been determined; one instance involves the use of key factors that influence the quality of the transport service whose improvement in turn helps improve the competitiveness of enterprises. The paper’s main idea is to showcase the necessity and approaches for analyzing and assessing those target segments of the transport service market that carry out cargo freights. Segmentation is an essential element of the marketing concept that allows transport enterprises to choose those target segments of the market that are the most convenient and effective for them, thus guaranteeing the optimization of their expenses and profits.  </p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TRAINING OF QUALIFIED SPECIALISTS IN THE PROCESS OF THEIR EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITY: THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 2019-02-20T12:02:08+01:00 Talgat Uteubayev Mariana Petrova Irena Lyubenova <p class="CENTEREDHEADING"><span lang="EN-US">This article is devoted to the problem of forming qualified specialists in the labor market during the process of their education in university. This article presents the mechanisms of integration of education and business on the basis of a public-private partnership with the identification of strategic objectives, directions, and expected results of interaction between the educational institution and employers' enterprises in the training of qualified specialists. The expected results of the interaction between the subjects of the public-private partnership based on the results of the implementation of organizational and educational support for the personality of the student, teacher, employer and the state as a whole are revealed. A scheme for organizing a resource center for the interaction between an educational institution and employers' enterprises, as well as the effectiveness of its creation. </span><span lang="EN-US">The new mechanism for the sustainable development of the higher education system should solve the following strategic tasks: expansion of educational and research activities of universities and other organizations of the higher education system on the basis of the development of scientific schools and practice; interaction of fundamental scientific research and university vocational education; strengthening of the connection between the practice-oriented and research components of the university; the introduction of a competence approach that allows the linking of professional competencies that meet modern realities and market requirements in order to achieve the goald of higher education; increasing the level of preparation of competitive human resources in demand for students of universities in the domestic labor market.</span></p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ORGANIZATION OF COAL DISTRIBUTION IN PGG 2019-02-20T12:02:07+01:00 Ewelina Włodarczyk Aurelia Rybak <p>Motivation: The aim of this article is to show how the distribution of hard coal (and energy fuels) is organized in one of the largest coal companies in Europe. The analyzed company merged (1.04.2017) with Katowicki Holding Węglowy to form a new business entity. These actions have changed the organizational structure of the companies.</p><p>Problem statement: During the planning of the hard coal distribution the specific nature of the coal industry must be taken into account. First of all, an analysis of the hard coal sales time series reveals a regularity of this phenomenon. The increased consumption of this fuel is clearly marked in the winter. As a result, mining companies are not able to eliminate sales and production seasonality due to natural causes. Therefore, in order to adapt to variable market conditions mining companies must manage production and distribution in order to survive the period of reduced demand, but also to meet the increased demand when needed.</p><p>Approach and results: To examine the company's newly established structure a document analysis method was used. This study allowed to clarify the hard coal market in terms of marketing and to divide it on the basis of the coal consumption level. Two groups of customers, i.e. large customers and so-called small customers have been identified. The distribution channels of hard coal have been analyzed, as well as the methods of coal carriage to individual customers. The analysis of documents shows that small customers are the primary recipients of broken coal and small quantities of pea and rice coal. In the case of the coal distribution to small customers the most common solution is merchant participation. The role of the merchant is to reach the largest number of customers and to reduce seasonal fluctuations. The delivery of coal is usually carried out for those buyers by road transport.</p><p>Conclusions: The conducted research allowed to clarify the hard coal market in terms of marketing and to divide it based on the level of hard coal consumption. Analysis of coal distribution was carried out in order to enable future modifications of the company's distribution process using geomarketing tools such as for example geocoding, Voronoi polygons, and geoprocessing.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HOME BIAS: EVIDENCE FROM THE STOCK EXCHANGE 2019-02-20T12:02:06+01:00 Olha Zadorozhna Bogna Gawronska-Nowak This paper deals with issues connected to the home bias, which is a tendency of investors to keep more domestic assets versus foreign ones. We use annual data on the value of share trading of 68 stock exchanges in 68 countries for the period of 2003-2015 to find out if home bias exists given domestic and foreign shares are traded under the same regulatory framework, with the same transaction costs and rules for information availability applied; and if it does, then what factors are responsible for it. We find that the home bias increases in periods of crisis and becomes lower in periods of relative stability. In addition, home bias tends to be smaller in countries with better control of corruption and that are more open to investments. A Hausman-Taylor estimation confirms this result and suggests that countries with better institutional environments tend to have smaller home bias. Moreover, countries that are more open to investments have more foreign companies listed on their stock exchanges. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN IN THE SYSTEM OF STATE POLICY MEASURES FOR STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF GEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGES 2019-02-20T12:02:06+01:00 Elena Y. Zolochevskaya Tatyana P. Cherkasova Olga V. Mishurina Yana E. Sivakova This article analyzes the features of three groups of institutional factors: institutional and economic, institutional and political, and institutional and social.  Influencing these factors by means of sound state policy can initiate economic growth on an innovative basis. An assessment of existing institutional barriers that act as constraints to economic growth in Russia is provided in the paper. In addition, the role of institutional design in optimizing the state policy for stimulating accelerated development and structural reorganization of the main development institutions is defined and an algorithm for implementing institutional design and its direction is proposed. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM: THE EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA AND THE COUNTRIES OF THE BALTIC REGION 2019-02-20T12:02:05+01:00 Elena Zolochevskaya Mariya Shtepa Armine Babayan The growing macroeconomic and political tensions between Russia and the Baltic States since the latter entered into the European Union have emphasized an urgency in establishing reciprocal relationships, based on common ground and mutual interests, to relieve the consequences of sanctions and restrictive policies. The article is aimed at highlighting the distinctions in the public administration framework in Russia and Baltic countries. Thus, the political power from forming a system of public administration can leverage influence on the social and economic relations in conditions of legitimacy and participation of civil society arrangements. The article involves comparative evaluation of Russian and Baltic model of public administration as well as deep comparison of public-private partnership (PPP) and state procurement models in Russia and abroad. Authors highlighted pros and cons of both Russian and foreign frameworks, resulting in “cooperation-prosperity” course. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IMPACT OF THE VAT REVERSE-CHARGE MECHANISM ON THE CASH FLOWS OF CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2019-02-20T12:02:20+01:00 Angelika Kútna Norbert Gyurián Zoltán Šeben In 2015, the Slovak Parliament adopted the Law on Amendments to the Law on Value-Added Tax. This law came into force on January 1, 2016. One of the most significant changes was the introduction of a reverse-charge for the provision of construction works. A government statement of its positive influence on the business environment is inconsistent with the two-year experience in the building sector. The main goal of this paper is to establish the reason for the practical effects of the value-added tax reverse-charge mechanism on the construction companies. The hypothesis is that the negative effect on the cash flows of the construction companies increases ‘opportunity costs’ connected to excessive deductions. The paper focuses on evaluating and quantifying such an effect. It presents a comparison of the conditions before and after the adoption of the Act. No. 222/2004 Coll., as amended in 2016 and includes factors that influence costs and cash flows of construction companies. It but does not consider factors related to turnover and the economic situation.  The reverse-charge mechanism affects the total of tax owing, the total deductible tax, the total excessive deduction, and the construction companies’ cash flows. In this study, the data from the information system of the Slovak Republic, under the condition of anonymity, are analyzed for the period 2014–2017. The effect of the value-added tax is quantified by way of financial interest expenses. These expenses depend on time limits for the excessive deduction, total of tax owing, and on the excessive deduction amount. Indicators of ‘Financial Burden 1’ and ‘Financial Burden 2’ are calculated. The results show that the Law on Amendments of Value Added Tax has significantly affected the constructions companies since January 2016. The reverse-charge system has not changed the delay in excessive deduction payments to the taxpayer’s bank account. It has changed the amount of excessive deduction expressed through money and the total tax owing. Based on the study results, this change markedly affects the financial burden of construction companies and provides an ‘opportunity cost’ Value Added Tax payers‘ construction company. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPERIENCE OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL COOPERATION IN CREATING CONDITIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF THE INFORMATION SPACE OF KNOWLEDGE 2019-02-20T12:02:04+01:00 Marina V. Alekseeva Elena V. Astapova Anna I. Vakula Inna A. Podroikina <p>The importance of ensuring Russia’s national interests in forming an information space is based on the contemporary peculiarities of forming the information society. This study is devoted to the analysis of international legal acts regulating integration processes in the former Soviet Union in the course of forming a single information space in the transition from an information society to knowledge one.</p><p>Authors provide an analysis of conditions in which the conceptual basis of forming the single information space the framework of international legal cooperation in the former Soviet Union in the field of information and informatization is grounded. The study includes an analysis of official data on CIS and EEU members’ cooperation as well as studies of Russian authors. Authors highlighted the importance of information communication technologies as instruments of transitioning from an information society to a knowledge society and emphasized the essential role of international legal cooperation experience for forming and providing access to the information space of knowledge in Russia.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## YOUTUBE VIDEO LECTURES IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES 2019-02-20T12:02:03+01:00 Aleksey Baranov Ivan Pivovarov The aim of this research article is to study and evaluate YouTube as an effective instrument of transmitting lecture information. The factors that motivate teachers to use YouTube in undergraduate studies are specified. Within the scopes of the research study, students were shown a YouTube video lecture before each lecture in a classroom. According to the author’s idea, these YouTube video lectures contained theoretical fundamentals, which created the necessary background for lectures in the classroom, where some case studies based on theories from video lectures were discussed. During the study, students were asked about their preferences on the YouTube video lectures, factors that motivate them to watch these lectures, things they would like to improve in the video lectures, and types of video lectures they mostly like. The findings show, that an unusual background location in the video can attract the students’ attention. Another conclusion that was made was that students get used to video lectures during the semester and hence by the end of the course they stop perceiving video lectures as something new. To conclude, video lectures no matter how popular they are in terms of number of views, allow teachers to use a time, which was originally planned for theory, for case studies that in many ways makes the educational process more attractive for students and practically focused. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STATE ANTI-DRUG HEALTH POLICY IN RUSSIA (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION) 2019-02-20T12:02:03+01:00 Natalia Chevtaeva Elena Kachanova Natalia Makhova In recent decades, the illicit drug problem within Russia’s population has become more severe. The threat of drug addiction is not only socially unacceptable but, in general, is fast becoming a major public health problem in Russia. The study objective is to identify factors that determine the availability of support from the state anti-drug policy of Russia, as exemplified by the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District, Yugra. Monitoring of the drug situation, carried out in Khanty-Mansiysk, Yugra in 2014 - 2016, provides the background data along with results of a sociological survey of 2000 residents, and input from an expert panel. Indicators of drug-related morbidity in Khanty-Mansiysk, Yugra, are compared with those for the Russian Federation as a whole. Parameters and criteria for providing access to health care for the population are established along with recommendations for the authorities on how to optimize drug treatment for the population. The monitoring not only provides data to identify the vulnerabilities but, with the accumulated positive experience from Russia, also assists those providing drug treatment to the population to focus efforts in alleviating this major social problem. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PERCEIVED SATISFACTION WITH UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION IN ROMANIAN AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS. TWO PERSPECTIVES ON MEDICAL EDUCATION 2019-02-20T12:02:02+01:00 Liana Dehelean Ana Maria Romosan Ion Papava Radu Stefan Romosan Papazian Petru Babaita Mircea Background: In Romania, foreign medical students have the possibility to learn the same curricula in Romanian, English, or French. The purpose of the study: To compare students’ satisfaction with training and future career opportunities from the perspective of Romanian and foreign students. Methods: The study was conducted for terminal year medical students divided into two samples, Romanian and foreign language students. The participants were invited to fill in a satisfaction questionnaire about their professional training and to express preferences for future career. Results: Foreign students were more satisfied with the lectures and the teaching staff. They attended optional lectures more frequently in comparison with Romanian students. Foreign students were more inclined to attend medical conferences and to enroll in PhD programs. While Romanian students were more inclined to consider emigration, foreign students prefer to practice in their native countries. Conclusions: Compared to their Romanian colleagues, foreign students were more engaged in educational and research activities. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPLORING DEEUROPEANIZATION 2019-02-20T12:02:01+01:00 Spasimir Domaradzki There is a noticeable disproportion between the research conducted on the process of Europeanization and its potential antonym Deeuropeanization. Whereas Europeanization has dominated the research agenda of European studies for already four decades, the concept of Deeuropeanization emerged only over the last decade and its conceptualization is rather in its preliminary stage. However, more and more journalists, intellectuals and scholars reach for this tempting antonym to accent on the negative trends observed within the process of European integration. The aim of this article is to identify the most common utilizations of the term, propose further extension of the concept and to reflect on its research potential. The article distills Deeuropeanization as a return to national interest, a departure from the European values, but also identifies institutional and procedural, and mimetic Deeuropeanization. With regard for these dimensions Deeuropeanization cannot be treated as a general antonym of Europeanization. Concluding, the article sets criteria for the identification of the process of Deeuropeanization. Firstly, when the Europeanization process produces worse results in comparison to the <em>status quo ante</em>. Secondly, when it leads to dystrophy of the integration consensus. Thirdly, when it facilitates the emergence of factors weakening Europeanization. Thus, the article provides a platform for the identification of Deeuropeanization as a distinct and helpful extension of the cognitive apparatus in the European Studies. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE OF TURKISH AND SLOVAK PRE-SERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS: THE CASE OF THE SQUARE 2019-02-20T12:02:00+01:00 Asuman Duatepe-Paksu Katarína Žilková This study compares the content knowledge of Slovak and Turkish pre-service teachers regarding the classification of the square. The study participants were final year students of training departments for elementary teachers. These pre-service teachers had completed all obligatory geometry courses in their program. For data collection, six questions leading to 10 items for analysis were used in this study. The total correct responses for each item were calculated as percentages for the Slovak and Turkish groups each and a chi-square test of independence was performed to see how well pre-service teachers understood the square in terms of quadrilateral relationships and whether groups of pre-service teachers from different countries displayed significantly different scores. According to the results, the responses of the Turkish and Slovak pre-service teachers were statistically different on each item. Slovak pre-service teachers displayed a significantly higher score on items relating to the class inclusion of a square with a rectangle, a parallelogram, and a quadrilateral. Turkish pre-service teachers presented a significantly higher score for items questioning the class inclusion of a square with a rhombus and a polygon. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DISCUSSION ON ISSUES OF THE THEORY OF LEGAL INCENTIVES 2019-02-20T12:02:00+01:00 Aleksandr Gavritskiy Svetlana Miroshnik The purpose of this article is to examine legal incentives as a form of a lawful norm to improve the social actions of individuals. A definition of legal incentive as a variety of legal norms is formulated and the features and principles of an incentivizing legal relationship identified and formulated. The provisions can be viewed as approaches for solving the problems of motivating lawful behavior and for use in analyzing practical problems associated with the theory of law, legal culture, and the rule of law. The concept offered reveals new possibilities for cognition of legal relations that are important for developing the theory of legal norms and the theoretical aspects of the realization of law. The functional approach underlying the research emphasizes the importance of this form of law and promotes the more efficient use of the its potential. The conclusions are relevant for further theoretical studies and the development of a policy by private companies aimed at activating the human factor to increase the productivity of their employees. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF CHILDREN FROM HOMELESS SHELTERS: AN AREA OF APPLICATION OF CRITICAL REFLEXIVITY IN SOCIAL WORK 2019-02-20T12:01:59+01:00 Kateřina Glumbíková Alice Gojová Soňa Vávrová Barbora Gřundělová On a global scale, the number of families with homeless children is growing. Foreign research shows that homelessness is linked to social adjustment problems. In the Czech Republic there are no surveys on social adjustment in the homeless children population. This article presents partial data from a research survey focused on the situation of homeless mothers with children residing in shelters. The article aims to find out how mothers residing with their children in homeless shelters in the city of Ostrava interpret the social adjustment of their children. The research strategy is qualitative, based on a participatory approach (cooperation with two peer researchers). 33 interviews and 6 focus groups were implemented as part of the research. The research findings also point to a close link between the situation of homelessness and social adjustment of homeless children in the Czech environment, namely as a result of the necessity of socialization in a specific environment with negative consequences on the parenting style and success in school of the children combined with their experience of domestic violence. The research findings imply in practice the need to apply the concept of critical reflexivity in social work with children from homeless shelters. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INNOVATIONS IN THE STATE CULTURAL POLICY FOR STRENGTHENING THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 2019-02-20T12:01:58+01:00 Andrey Goloborodko Sergey Vorontsov Aleksandr Ponedelkov This article reviews the modern hazards and challenges of national security for the Russian Federation and the need to reformat its main issues and determining factors. The authors examine the concept of cultural policy, the interdependence of politics and culture, where the political sphere is considered a product of cultural and social life, or in other words, where politics is a form of cultural existence. The authors describe the previous political science research concerning culture and the phenomenon of cultural policy where culture is considered the main mechanism of socializing an individual (Goloborodko, 2012). They also examine a cultural policy as an instrument reflecting the social and political systems’ relationships. The authors explore the concept of national security and ways to ensure that national interests are protected within the systems of both Russia and international affairs. It is noted that in recent years, the problems of culture and cultural policies, as factors of national security, have drawn crucial public and scientific attention, substantiating reasons for increased effort on the humanitarian issues of national security. The authors conclude that the culture accumulated in the political sphere could influence the regulation of social development and ensure a stable public and political existence. 2018-09-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WORK EFFECTIVENESS FACTORS IN THE OPINION OF SOCIAL SERVICE REPRESENTATIVES – RESEARCH STATEMENT 2019-02-20T12:01:57+01:00 Ewa Grudziewska Marta Mikołajczyk <p>The subject of the analysis presented in this paper are work effectiveness factors in the opinion of social workers and probation officers. The research was conducted among 121 persons: 64 probation officers executing judgments in family and minors related cases, and 57 social workers. The method of a diagnostic survey was applied during the research. The results show that 62,5% of probation officers consider their work effectiveness as moderate and 31,2% consider their work effective when 64,9% of social workers consider their work moderately effective and 31,6% claim their work is effective. Undoubtedly, the effectiveness of work of both probation officers and social workers depends largely - in the opinion of respondents - on their professional experience and skills, good contacts with the local community in which they work or work autonomy, though the high prestige of the profession is not a factor supporting effectiveness of their work. The presented research results can not refer to the entire population of representatives of these two professions, but they indicate further directions of research on the broadly understood professional identity of representatives of social services inPoland.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EUROPE’S BORDERS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD: GOVERNMENTALITY AND IDENTITY 2019-02-20T12:01:57+01:00 Jan Grzymski <p>This article argues that the EU's neighbourhood policy<em> </em>is deeply entrenched in the Eurocentric spatial imaginaries of the EU as the universal core of and pole of attraction to its neighbours. This is especially clear in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and Eastern Partnership (EaP) concept of an asymmetrical partnership and neighbourhood. The ENP and EaP constituted the EU as a fully European core, while simultaneously <em>othering</em> its neighbourhood as not-fully European with an uncertain status of being between the inside and outside. This article attempts to expose how the ENP and EaP's practices draw a border for the EU/Europe and its neighbourhood with the use of specific EU policy instruments, which are not <em>just</em> technical or professional tools. To the contrary, these instruments hold some potential power in constituting and envisioning the EU's closest outside neighbours. This article will move beyond application-oriented research and draw on critical social theory, especially the already-existing governmentality research as well as Michel Foucault's theory of power. The article concludes with the exposed mechanisms of constructing the political and cultural space of neighbourhood (and ultimately Europe too) through the ENP and EaP's <em>governmental rationalities </em>of their border practices. </p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ORGANIZATION'S SAFETY CULTURE, ITS INDICATORS AND ITS MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES 2019-02-20T12:01:56+01:00 Martin Halaj Milan Kutaj Martin Boroš Safety is a fundamental condition for the existence of an organization creating conditions for the fulfilment of its basic functions. It is important to identify the safety factors that affect an organization’s level. In this article, we identify and describe one of these factors, which is a safety culture. In order to assess a safety culture, its indicators have to be identified. Safety culture indicators reflect its level in various areas. Some of the indicators of safety culture are universal and usable in a large number of organizations, while some of them are more specific and usable only for certain organizations. After identifying the critical thresholds of all safety culture indicators identified, they can be used to assess the final level of safety culture. It is crucial to propose the right combination of methods and practices, while also using safety culture indicators to determine this final level of safety culture. In this article we present a combination of two data obtaining tools: a questionnaire survey conducted among the employees of the organization and managed interviews with the management of the organization. In order to properly evaluate the safety culture, it is necessary to compare the obtained data. The main contribution of the article is the proposal of a possible scheme for assessing the safety culture of organizations using the safety culture indicators. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE SYSTEM OF SUPPORT AND PROTECTION IN SLOVAKIA 2019-02-20T12:01:55+01:00 Magdaléna Horáková Barbara Pavlíková <p>Introduction: Studies aimed at supporting or protecting victims of human trafficking are rare, although this is a current issue with global overlap. The aim of this work is to identify the specifics of the victims who use the services of organizations under the Program for Support and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking in Slovakia.</p><p>Methods: This research study was conducted using the method of content analysis of interviews with workers of organizations providing services under the Program for Support and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking in Slovakia and documents issued by the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic (MoI SR) in 2010-2017.</p><p>Results: 210 victims of human trafficking included in the Program for Support and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking were identified in the monitored period - 111 women and 99 men. From the perspective of origin, the area of the Eastern Slovakia was most prevalent. The demographic environment (village, district town, municipal city) did not play a significant role. The most common purpose of human trafficking was sexual exploitation and forced labour. There is no systematic approach in addressing the issue.</p><p>Conclusion: The creation of a pilot field social work program for victims of human trafficking using case management would help take into account the specificities of human trafficking victims. The program would allow for coordinating the services that might provide a solution to the problem of a trafficked person  At the same time, by using case management, we can prevent the provision of the same services to the client by several organizations and increase the likelihood of a successful solution to the client´s situation and work efficiency.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INCREASING OF THE STUDY PROCESS ORGANIZATION EFFICIENCY IN MILITARIZED EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION 2019-02-20T12:01:55+01:00 Alens Indriksons The correct organization of the study process serves as a basis for the development of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in students. The present paper explores the specificity of the study process organization in the militarized educational institution with hierarchy, discipline and one way communication. Therefore, the study process and pedagogical work is diverted into a second place, thereby reducing their effectiveness. The aim of the research is to perform a study of the professional training system of border guards to detect the factors that influence the training system and to determine the possibilities to improve and increase the organization and efficiency of the study process in the State Border Guard College. In order to explore the possibilities to increase the organization and efficiency of the study process, questionnaires for the teachers were created and factors that influence the professional training system of border guards were detected. The author brought forward the conclusion that increasing the organization and efficiency of the study process in militarized educational institution is not possible without correct and planned organization of the study process, giving priority to the study process, reducing the involvement of the students in internal service duties, and applying "subject-subject" communication in the implementation of professional and general education courses. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MILAN RASTISLAV ŠTEFÁNIK IN THEATRE PRODUCTIONS IN SLOVAKIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC 2019-02-20T12:01:54+01:00 Dagmar Inštitorisová This paper contains a review of plays featuring Milan Rastislav Stefanik as the main character. It involves accessible examples of Slovak and Czech plays, which portray Stefanik as having features of a dramatic character. The paper concentrates on both contemporary plays and those emerging soon after his death. The staging of contemporary plays is analyzed with a focus on dramatic texts and plays that are mainly ceremonial and educational. These were performed, predominantly, in school environments or during celebrations commemorating Stefanik’s tragic death. The paper begins with a short biography of Štefánik. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PREEMINENT SOUTH-DANUBIAN ROMANIANS: ANDREI ŞAGUNA AND EFTIMIE MURGU 2019-02-20T12:01:54+01:00 Raluca Iulia Iulian At the end of the First World War in 1918, after the break-up of the Habsburg Empire, several national states were constituted, reconstituted or completed. Among them, Romania realized the Great Union on December 1, 1918 by unification with Transylvania and Bessarabia. This was the realization of an ideal pursued for centuries by the Romanian people despite historical vicissitudes. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the special contributions of two personalities, South-Danubian Romanians that stand out in the social, religious, political and economic life in Transylvania and in the rest of the Habsburg Empire in the 19<sup>th</sup> century, thus creating the prerequisites for the Great Union. The method we used in our research was the direct analysis of  various materials  such as studies, basic documents, and historical texts concerning  the  South-Danubian Romanians. Andrei Şaguna, one of the greatest Romanian Orthodox  hierarchs, re-established the old Orthodox Metropolitan Church of Transylvania in Alba Iulia. He also activated in the political field especially during the revolutionary year 1848, promoting the rights of Romanians in the Habsburg Empire and strengthening their national identity. Andrei Şaguna also developed the Romanian education system. Eftimie Murgu, emblematic fighter for the rights and the liberties of Romanians in Transylvania, professor and lawyer, revived the flame of national consciousness in the Romanian historical provinces. He has a great contribution in the affirmation of the Latin origin of the Romanian people, and of its national identity. Andrei Şaguna and Eftimie Murgu had an decisive contribution to the preparation of the unification of the country, one as a priest and the other as a civilian. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MANIFESTATION OF DIVERGENCE AS A SPECIFIC FEATURE OF THINKING 2019-02-20T12:01:53+01:00 Veselina Ivanova Maria Temnikova <p>INTRODUCTION: The question of intellect and its development is an important topic for contemporary pedagogy science. The approach to education from this point of view gives a better idea regarding its social-cultural and psycho-pedagogy dimensions.</p><p>AIM: The research study systematized and presented theoretical concepts as well as certain practical aspects based on the specifics of developing education through the process of solving mathematical tasks.</p><p>METHODS: To achieve the aim the following methods were used: analysis of the content; pedagogical observation; pedagogical experiment; method for determining the standard for success and level of correlation. </p><p>FINDINGS AND RESULTS: The results received from the theoretical and the experimental work demonstrated that a divergence occurs through the process of solving mathematical tasks both as a conceptual foundation for the development of skills and a pre-requisite for assuring the so called “I-inclusion” of the student.</p><p>CONCLUSIОNS: The result of the research in the theoretical, methodological and practical aspects are focused on integration with the intellectual development of children and school students<strong>.</strong></p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPERIMENTAL METHOD OF JOULE’S EXPERIMENT IN PHYSICS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL 2019-02-20T12:01:52+01:00 Terézia Jindrová Energy remains a problematic topic in the pedagogic sphere. One main issue in high-school teaching is the lack of practical examples. Such demonstrations are the most effective way of imparting knowledge. This article discusses a new modern version of the Joule’s experiment as a practical demonstration for Physics classes. It models the specific thermal capacity and the transformation of mechanical energy into heat energy. As such, it represents an approach for teaching thermodynamics. The goal of this research is to verify the functionality of the new apparatus and its optimization for use in practical experiments during high-school classes. One main acquisition is the application of the Joule’s experiment in teaching Physics within a lesson and to provide a methodical procedure on how to operate the experiment in a school. This practical example may help teachers incorporate other experiments and use inquiry-based science education in their teaching programs. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REHABILITATION EDUCATORS’ BURNOUT SYNDROME AND SELF-ESTIMATION OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE 2019-02-20T12:01:51+01:00 Anna Karłyk-Ćwik <p>The professional burnout syndrome, which is a real threat in the job of rehabilitation educators, lowers the quality of their psychophysical functioning and, as a result, significantly impacts the quality of their work, reducing the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process. The purpose of the research presented in the article was to determine the structure and the intensity of the special educators’ burnout syndrome, and to establish the relationship between burnout and self-estimation of professional competence of teachers. The studies covered a group of 51 educators working with juvenile delinquents in three correctional institutions (borstals) in Poland. The main research tool was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). A survey showed a slightly elevated level of burnout in the test group and a relationship between the respective components of the professional burnout syndrome and self-estimation of professional competencies of rehabilitation educators: a statistically significant negative correlation between depersonalisation and subjectively assessed level of practical and moral competencies of the examined charges, and a positive correlation between a sense of personal accomplishment and the level of technical as well as practical and moral competence. The results obtained suggest that the development of professional competence should constitute the basis of mental hygiene and burnout prevention in the profession of rehabilitation educator.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN EUROPEAN LEGAL DOCUMENTS 2019-02-20T12:01:51+01:00 Libor Klimek This contribution deals with European legal documents in the context of domestic violence. It focuses on the most crucial contemporary documents containing requirements addressed to European States. It analyses documents of the European Union and the Council of Europe. It is divided into three sections. The first section introduces the European Union Directive 2012/29/EU on victims of crime (Directive 2012/29/EU establishing the minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime), the second section analyses the Directive 2011/99/EU on the European protection order, and the third section briefly focuses on the Council of Europe convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul convention). Many problems occurred. The legal framework exists, but the needs of each victim should be assessed individually. As regards the Directive on victims of crime, no government is willing to monitor it. As regards the European protection order, only a few such protection orders have been applied. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## VIOLENCE AS SOCIAL PATHOLOGY THROUGH THE OPTICS OF SOCIAL WORK 2019-02-20T12:01:50+01:00 Hermína Mareková <p>Human aggression is perhaps the most interesting area in the exploration of the evolutionary behavior of mankind. Its existence is evident in our everyday lives, as we often use various kinds of violence, ranging from finer (innocent) coercions to murders and terrorist acts. In the professional world, as well as among laypersons, there are conflicting views on the assessment of aggression. Our work is an attempt to summarize the basics of the theory of violence. It is necessary to realize how divergent and inconsistent the various theories are. Attempts to define violence are subject to social norms. Even in scientific literature, some theories are highly dependent on the personal beliefs, points of view, and interests of the respective authors. An example is the opinion that humanity is currently experiencing its most peaceful time.</p><p>The questions of the necessity and impact of violence on our life constantly resonate in society and cannot be analyzed from only one angle. The aim of this paper is not to give a comprehensive picture of the problem of today's violence (including that found in the media), nor is our goal to find a single correct opinion on the topic, due to the extent of the problem. We rather attempt to contribute to the broadening of knowledge in this area and to propose more topics worth researching. We are inclined to utilize Husserl's methods of contemporary philosophy, with an emphasis on scientific precision and with the aim of creating a basis for further research.</p><p>Violence as a social pathology, with its social consequences, is largely addressed through social work. It is the cases where violence is often present, when the client as well as the social worker or the staff of other branches (police, health care) have to make decisions while having limited choices and, at the same time, trying to comply with the law.<strong></strong></p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE CLINICAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: THE ATTITUDE OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT NURSES TOWARDS MENTORSHIP AT HOSPITALS IN LITHUANIA 2019-02-20T12:01:50+01:00 Asta Mažionienė Vida Staniulienė Vitalija Gerikienė <p>The research sought to determine the attitude of student nurses towards their clinical placement: clinical learning environment, communication with supervisor – mentor, and their satisfaction with the recently completed clinical placement. The research was performed by 283 students of the first to third study year from two Northwest regional higher education institutions for nurses in Lithuania. The students have recently completed their clinical placement at regional hospitals. A quantitative descriptive correlational design was used. The research instrument used was the paper version of the CLES (Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision) questionnaire. The research results revealed that more than half of the students were satisfied with their recently completed clinical placement. Their satisfaction was related to the study year. The student nurses were the most positive about the possibility to approach the members of staff during clinical placement and the fact that there were sufficient meaningful learning cases and situations during clinical placement. Clinical placement of the student nurses was supervised and assessed by supervisors – registered nurses (N=133) and ward managers (N=135). The student nurses assessed their personal contribution in clinical placement as good and very good. Those, who specified the highest personal contribution in their clinical placement, assessed the clinical learning environment the best. The most satisfied students were supervised individually during their clinical placements.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF IRAQI REFUGEES IN SLOVAKIA 2019-02-20T12:01:49+01:00 Silvia Morávková Martina Mojtová <p>This paper deals with the analysis of a level of quantitative and qualitative indicators in the area of economic integration of the Iraqi refugees in the conditions of the Slovak Republic. The aim of this article is to better identify the integration process and to analyze the current results achieved in the area of economic integration of refugees.</p><p>The research method is a semi-structured interview with the management of the organization and with the staff responsible for the integration of Iraqi refugees in Nitra and its surroundings. Data collection was based on the Structure of indicators of integration of immigrants into society, from the perspective of the selected indicators of economic integration. The data obtained reflects the objective and subjective perspective of the monitoring. They provide data on the number of economically active refugees in the labor market, on the possibility of recognizing their original qualification, the unemployment rate as well as the most common problems related to the employment of Iraqis.</p><p>The results point to the importance of successful economic integration in relation to the overall success of the integration process. Financial security and job opportunities can be a motivation for Iraqi refugees to continue their efforts to successfully integrate into our society.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PECULIARITIES OF APPLYING COACHING AS A TOOL FOR RAISING PERFORMANCE OF EDUCATION IN SOUTHERN-RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT 2019-02-20T12:01:48+01:00 Victoria Nekrasova Veneta Baeva Natatalya Kovalenko The practice of using the educational potential of undergraduates, in contemporary scholastic institutions, reflects the insufficient effectiveness of using knowledge as a necessary component of forming graduates’ professional human capital. On the one hand, students’ abilities are realized at a lower level than possible. On the other hand, the available educational potential is limited to performing certain training tasks in a framework with competencies that lead to a falling quality of education and consequently, to the decreasing competitiveness of a high school. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY PREFERENCES IN LATVIA: EVIDENCE FROM ISSP SURVEYS 2019-02-20T12:01:47+01:00 Mareks Niklass This study seeks to find out how social welfare policy preferences have changed over time and what factors account for those preferences in Latvia. The author analyses ISSP survey data gathered in 1996, 2007 and 2016. The data analysis shows that most Latvians still support government interventions in providing social welfare. However, economic factors like material wellbeing and self-interest have decreased the overall support for social welfare policies during the last 20 years. The article provides a long-term perspective missing in previous studies on social welfare policy preferences in Eastern Europe. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVES FROM THE ALBANIAN TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 2019-02-20T12:01:47+01:00 Majlinda Nuhiu Our main aim in this research paper is to analyze the place of adjectives in translated paradigms from the Albanian to the English language. The corpus is taken from translated books of the well known Albanian writer, Ismail Kadare, translated into the English language, exclusively by native English translators. Firstly, we’ll try to present the general place of adjectives in each language separately. Secondly, by comparing and contrasting the corpus of the both languages we will try to find out numerous and diverse similarities and differences in both of the languages, and with the help of the corpus we will check the results. With the help of Levenstone’s (1965) translational’ paradigms we’ll try to find out if adjectives in the Albanian language change their sentence position after they are translated into English. The technique being used is an objective technique, working with the corpus, one-way translation and  a group test of Gjorgevic (1982). 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ETIOLOGY OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 2019-02-20T12:01:46+01:00 Peter Papáček The search for possible solutions and tools to fight domestic violence always ends up with searching for the causes of this negative phenomenon. To answer what causes domestic violence turns out to be a challenging issue. Knowing the causes of domestic violence could be the key to the elimination of domestic violence from our society. Aetiology is a partial component of criminology that focuses on the discovery and investigation of the causes of criminal behaviour in individuals. Knowing the causes of crime as such is in itself a very demanding process. The cause creates a causal relationship between the phenomena which are unchangeable. The causes of violent behaviour in domestic violence have never been accurately and unequivocally proven. For this reason, it is more appropriate to identify and investigate criminogenic factors of criminal behaviour. These are factors, which in themselves, or in a combination of them, support, enable, incite, facilitate the emergence or development of criminal behaviour. The determination of the exact causes of domestic violence is very difficult, nearly impossible, so the factors that can indicate violent behaviour in a family are the most important to analyse and deal with. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE CONCEPT OF ANDRAGOGICAL VOCATIONAL CONSULTANCY FOR MARGINALIZED TEACHERS 2019-02-20T12:01:45+01:00 Ivan Pavlov Katarína Krejčíková The article describes a proposal for the concept of andragogical vocational consultancy for teachers at schools with a high number of pupils from socially disadvantaged environments. The teachers themselves show almost no interest in supporting a solution for complex pedagogical-educational problems. The concept of andragogical vocational consultancy complements other educational services through highly individualized and personalized support reflecting the specific needs of these marginalized teachers directly in school conditions. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND SENIORS 2019-02-20T12:01:45+01:00 Jakub Pikna Nikoleta Fellnerova Michal Kozubik <p>Goal: This article focuses onthe relationship between information technologies and theiruse by senior citizens. The main objective of the research is to identify the problems that encompasssenior citizenuse of information technologies.</p><p>Methods: The research sample consisted of 5 participants aged 62 years to 66 years, from which 2 participants were women and 3 were men. The research method used was a semi-structured interviews of own design.</p><p>Results: The largestbarrier between information technology and senior citizens is its modernization which puts a pressure on the education of seniors in this area of technology. Communication via internet or telephone with remote family members has been shown to have a positive effecton the lives of seniors, which in turn reduces barriers between seniors and society. An important finding was that all participants in the research samplewereinterested in further development of their understanding in these areas, but lackededucational opportunities.</p><p>Conclusions: We concludethat themajorproblem faced by senior citizens is the rapid advancement of modernization of information technologies, which leaves the means to educate seniorspredominantly the responsibility of family members. In the future it would be appropriate to corroborate our findings with a higher number of participants, for example in a social services home, which could bring further new insights into our results regarding the opportunities of education for senior citizens.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BETWEEN MARKET AND MORALITY: THE CASE OF SURROGACY 2019-02-20T12:01:44+01:00 Bartosz Płotka Cristina Iulia Ghenu Kamila Rezmer In <em>What Money Can’t Buy</em> and <em>Justice – What’s the Right Thing to Do</em> Michael Sandel argued that nowadays we face the loss of our collective moral compass caused by the increasing role of markets in our lives. In his view, when market and moral values compete, some aspects of everyday life become corrupted. One of the author’s examples is the case of surrogacy, presented as a service which corrupts parenthood. In this article we follow Sandel’s argument and argue, step by step, that its logic cannot be fully applied to surrogacy and, there where it can, it is utterly wrong. That is because in fact Sandel’s argumentation is not strictly economic but personalistic, as we demonstrate in the article. Our conclusion is that Sandel’s personalistic approach to surrogacy cannot be generalized over all cases and cultures, and even where it is used, it is offending and discriminating against both women who want to be surrogates and the intended parents. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SCENARIO FOR PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES (USING THE EXAMPLE OF ‘WHITE COLLAR’ WORKERS) 2019-02-20T12:01:43+01:00 Oxana Posukhova Oxana Nor-Arevyan Pavel Zayats Ludmila Klimenko Scenarios for professional identity development are studied using level-based sociological analysis, i.e., at a social micro-level in a group of peer professionals and at an institutional macro-level in a social and professional structure of a megapolis. Based on the research, in which ‘white collar’ workers were chosen as a reference group, the authors conclude that a professional identity in a megapolis experiences multidirectional influence of imitative professionalism. In addition, an identification model matrix is formed that focuses on professional identity as a self-identification that self-attributes to a group of professionals as a power with active social and civil position. The discovered trends are reviewed at macro- and micro-levels. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIFIC PROFILE OF ART ORGANIZATIONS IN PLOVDIV, BULGARIA 2019-02-20T12:01:43+01:00 Margarita Ruseva Vesela Kazashka Vasil Kolev This paper presents the results of fundamental research into the cultural organizations of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The overarching aim of the research is to determine the specific profile of art organizations. Factors examined are areas of work, types of ownership, and category (small, medium, or large enterprises). An objective is to collect and analyze data for several projects that are developed and funded by the art organizations over a five-year period. Empirical research and analysis of quantitative and comparative data are conducted to achieve these objectives. This involves a survey using a questionnaire developed by experts with two main groups of questions. The first group is a set of general questions targeting the specific profile of the organizations, and the second aims to specify the type, area, frequency, and source of funding for the projects developed by the art organizations. The obtained data and results provide the profile and the financial framework of the cultural and art organizations in Plovdiv city, Bulgaria and can be used as a basis for further studies and research. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ATTITUDES OF STUDENTS IN BULGARIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC TOWARDS PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS 2019-02-20T12:01:42+01:00 Margarita Ruseva Vesela Kazashka <p>The paper is covering a survey aimed to find out what is the publicity and the interest of society in people with disabilities, what is the public attitude of students towards this stigmatized group of people, are there any already formed stereotypes and positive stigmas of the people with disabilities, how to achieve their overall integration into society, i.e. starting from the family, through university and finally at work.   </p><p>We carried out surveys (questionnaires) among students from the Czech Republic and Republic of Bulgaria, as for this purpose we interviewed 100 students from both countries.</p><p>This work reviews the concept of a relation between people with disabilities and the students, and the positive attitude of the latter for the purpose of integration into society. This survey uses several statistical methods. This fact increases its value and in great extent increases the possibilities of obtaining adequate and credible results.<strong> </strong></p><p>As a result of the survey, we determined the following: Direct contact with people with special educational needs is more influential both for people with disabilities and for the change of attitudes towards them. Overcoming the problem with the socialization and realization of the people with disabilities, both in public and personal aspect are a positive stigma which is a motivator and generator of new attitudes. Positive stigma, positive examples and direct contact are catalysts of the social processes related to people with disabilities and stimulate attitudes of the society and the individual.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CREATING A SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH FUNCTIONALITY TO HELP MAKE IT ACCESSIBLE FOR PEOPLE WITH A VISUAL DEFICIT 2019-02-20T12:01:42+01:00 Negoslav Sabev Galya Georgieva-Tsaneva Galina Bogdanova The software systems that millions of users use everyday around the world are mainly targeted at the main and the largest average group of people - people without disabilities. However, software systems are often inaccessible and unusable for another group of people - people with congenital or acquired disabilities. For a system to be accessible to people with special needs, it must be designed to take account of and be geared to their specific needs, opportunities for using the software systems and the hardware that provides them. This paper presents a model for creating a software system (for a physiological data analysis) that takes into account the needs of people with disabilities and in particular people with visual deficits. This model will ensure the assibilites of the software system and its easy use by both this target group and people without disabilities. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## KNOWLEDGE AND ETHICS 2019-02-20T12:01:41+01:00 Martin Schubert <p>The author of the study explains human cognitive processes by referring to the scientific works of Heinz von Foerster, the Socrates of Cybernetics and co-founder of radical constructivism. The default postulate according to which “The environment as we perceive it is our invention” is supported by two experiments. The neurophysiological experiments on which the postulate is based are briefly explained and relevant ethical conclusions are subsequently drawn.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE POPULATION OF THE BORDER RUSSIAN REGION IN TERMS OF HUMANITARIAN CHALLENGES (THE EXAMPLE OF THE ROSTOV REGION) 2019-02-20T12:01:40+01:00 Anton Vladimirovich Serikov Andrey Vladimirovich Bedrik Yulia Sergeevna Panfilova <p>The issues related to the study of social well-being of the population are presented in terms of the humanitarian challenges experienced in Russian regions. The paper identifies the latent sources of social tension with the border regions classified as high-risk areas of special research interest. In this article, the authors identify and analyze the main components affecting the well-being of the population in the Rostov region, a border region of Russia, from a macrosocial perspective. The empirical basis for the work includes the materials of sociological research conducted by scientists of the Southern Federal University and the South Russian Branch of the Federal Research Sociological Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2013–2017. Based on the results of the empirical measurements, the authors propose that an increase in the population’s overall level of social well-being is vital in forming the long-term strategic goal of the public authorities for social stability in the Rostov border region. The study findings suggest that the main measures need to be aimed at finding ways to reduce the conflict potential of migration; increase the openness of the labor market and reduce the level of unemployment; and improve the security measures, taking into account the proximity to state border.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE STATUS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY 2019-02-20T12:01:40+01:00 Damir Y. Shapsugov Yuri N. Radachinsky Andrey V. Kurochkin <p>Only a few scientific works in Russian legal studies are devoted to the status of legal responsibility in the Russian legal framework. This article examines the status of legal responsibility in the legal system of Russian society and proposes a new approach and defines the relationships between legal responsibility and legal awareness, legal culture, and regulation of social relations on the basis of authors’ consecutive studies as well as other viewpoints presented in the literature. Authors outlined the features of legal responsibility in the context of Russian legal framework and social relations, highlighting criteria of legal behavior and Russian legal norms contributing to the development of this phenomenon.  </p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ON THE FACTORS HINDERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENERAL LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY IN RUSSIAN SCIENCE 2019-02-20T12:01:39+01:00 Damir Y. Shapsugov Yuri N. Radachinsky Andrey V. Kurochkin <p>The current methodology of the study of legal responsibility does not ensure the solution of important theoretical and practical problems regarding its nature. This article is devoted to the problems of the development of a general legal responsibility theory and draws attention to the trends of modern science, which hinder the identification and description of legal responsibility as a general legal phenomenon. Authors provided and analyzed a set of retrospective opinions on the formation and development of legal responsibility phenomenon. To overcome the adequacy of understanding the social and scientific grounds for the development of the general theory of legal responsibility the authors state that the legal responsibility phenomenon must be developed in the light of its possible integration into the theory of general social responsibility.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A LEGAL MECHANISM FOR REGULATING THE DIGITAL ECONOMY 2019-02-20T12:01:38+01:00 Tatiana V. Shatkovskaya Tatiana V. Epifanova Natalia G. Vovchenko Nikolay G. Romanenko This article examines the societal affairs arising from the digital economy and how these influence the system of state regulation. The authors propose and justify a structural model of a legal mechanism to regulate the digital economy based on results of a critical analysis of Russian Federation and European Union experiences. The research indicates the need to include both centralized and decentralized elements in a mechanism for such regulation and to reconcile these elements by balancing the legislative potential of private entities and the conservative justice approaches of legislators. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EXPERIMENTS WITH A TRANSFORMER IN HIGH SCHOOL 2019-02-20T12:01:38+01:00 Matúš Sitkey This article describes the education of secondary school pupils in relation to a set of experiments using a school transformer and the Tesla coil.  The set of practical experiments consists of 9 that can be used in the teaching of pupils of physics at secondary school in the thematic unit relating to electricity and magnetism. Each experiment contains a description of the relevant section of the International Standard Classification of Education in which it can be used. These descriptions include a motivational title, pedagogical goals, new keywords, a device list, and a level of difficulty based on the devices used. It also includes an experimental procedure, its physical explanation and experiment note, and supplementary questions for pupils. The research focuses on increasing the interest of pupils and improving their understanding of theory on the subject of electricity and magnetism by way of theoretical lessons connected to practical experiments using the Tesla coil. The research involved a special questionnaire for evaluation using the Thurstone method, which measures the preference of the respondent group. The results are analyzed using a modified Thurstone method of paired comparison with the software, Mathematica. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO HYPER CONCENTRATION OF THE POWER IN RUSSIA 2019-02-20T12:01:37+01:00 Vladimir A. Sologub Irina A. Hasheva <p>Local self-government existed throughout the history of Russia, regardless of the successive forms of government. Despite some transformations in the municipal sphere, certain objectives of Russia’s municipal reform have not been realized. This article describes the reasons for permanent reform of local government in the plane of standard and legal character, the financial and economic limitations of the municipality, and the low activity of self-organization of citizens. Moreover, authors provide the results of a public poll regarding the reform of the local self-government and give an assessment of the results of the reforms undertaken and define the existing problems and prospects of developing local government as objectives of this research. Authors concluded that the existing system of local self-government needs modernization and should be based on certain strategy and tactics involving historical approach and analysis of current socioeconomic conditions for future progress.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ATTITUDE OF GENERATION Y STUDENTS TO THEIR JOINT STUDY PROGRAMME. QUALITY ASSESSMENT 2019-02-20T12:01:37+01:00 Gita Statnickė <p>Students from Generation Y are already studying or choosing a profession, and their choice is mainly determined by their lifestyle, as they seek jobs which provide joy and are not just a source of money. Generation Y put great demands on the quality of their chosen study programme. The purpose of this research is to reveal how the joint study programme students who belong to Generation Y assess their experience in terms of quality of their studies as a service. The article discusses the concept of quality of studies as a service; provides the theoretical aspects of the study service quality assessment in a higher education institution; presents a carried out experienced quality assessment on a joint study programme as a service from the point of view of the Generation Y students; and provides recommendations for improving the quality of studies as a service from the point of view of the Generation Y students.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ASSESSMENT OF CASE STUDY METHOD IMPLEMENTATION IN THE BUSINESS ENGLISH TEACHING 2019-02-20T12:01:36+01:00 Angela Strelchonok <p>The paper presents research carried out with the purpose to evaluate the results of case study method implementation in the Business English language classroom with undergraduate students of RISEBA University of Business, Arts, and Technology.</p><p> The research question is whether students who are taught Business English through case studies develop better linguistic competence as well as greater proficiency in both language and business communication skills than students who are taught without the use of case study method.</p><p>An experiment was conducted on two equal groups during one academic semester. Each group was administered tests devised by the lecturer before and after the experiment. Data were analysed using statistical ANOVA methodology and evidence to support the hypothesis was obtained.</p><p>The results of statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis about the advantage of implementation of the case study method in the Business English language classroom.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A CRITICAL THINKING APPROACH FOR IMPLEMENTING INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN CAREER GUIDANCE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 2019-02-20T12:01:36+01:00 Gunars Strods Aina Strode <p>Skills that promote the growth and well-being of society are particularly important. In this context an important task is to encourage more young people to choose professions in mathematics, science and technology, as the adequacy of the number of graduates in these highly sought after fields is extremely important for innovation and growth.</p><p>In the context of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, the fields of Wood-Forestry, Metal-Machinery, and Agriculture-Food are considered to be fast-growing industries. However, the number of trained specialists is insufficient, and the motivation and interest of potential employees should be facilitated by school career counselors.</p><p>The aim of this article is to study the most demanded professional competencies in Wood-Forestry, Metal-Machinery, and the Agriculture-Food industries and to elaborate recommendations for designing a methodology for career counselor’s professional development training for career guidance in secondary school.</p><p>Research methods: A literature study and a questionnaire. In total 130 respondents - Administrative, Sector managers and Sector specialists from companies, voluntary answered the survey questions online.</p><p>The results of the study determined the most demanded competencies in Wood-Forestry, Metal-Machinery and the Agriculture-Food industries are related to design, technology and economics. It is recommended to use a critical thinking approach for implement interdisciplinarity in career guidance in secondary schools. The career counselors should be introduced to the most demanded professional competencies in Wood-Forestry, Metal-Machinery, and Agriculture-Food industries during professional development training for career guidance for secondary school students.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCES FOR PLANE FIGURES IN THE EDUCATION IN MATHEMATICS FOR GRADES 1 - 4 2019-02-20T12:01:35+01:00 Maria Temnikova <p>INТRODUCTION: The development of specific mathematical competences from the competency cluster “Plane figures” is one of the important factors for achieving effective education in mathematics in primary school.</p><p>PURPOSE OF STUDY: The purpose of this article is the presentation of the competences concept and especially the concept of the objective specific mathematical competences as well as the options for their development in and through education in mathematics in Grades 1-4.  </p><p>METHODS: During the experimental work the researchers performed qualitative and quantitative study of the topics presented above. The following methods were applied: a didactical experiment, observation, test, content analysis, and a mathematical-statistical method for data processing.</p><p>RESULTS: As a result of the experimental work it was determined that the percentage of fourth graders who failed to solve a geometry text task decreased from 49.61% to 9.32%. The percentage of those students who failed to draw a circle with a given radius and an angle according to a given grade decreased from 38.95% to 8.17%. Additionally, the percentage of the students who correctly solved a geometry text tasks increased from 15.2% to 23.1%. The difference in the results is proven to be of statistical significance.  </p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the applied methodology system of work where productive strategies, methods and approaches were used, the specific mathematical competences from the competency cluster “Plane figures” were developed in their completeness in primary school students.</p> 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NEGLECT OF SENIORS AS A FORM OF DOMESIC VIOLENCE 2019-06-16T10:33:31+02:00 Marcela Tittlová The neglect of seniors is new and more current problem in society nowadays.  Originally. Domestic violence in criminological sources was limited just on violence against women, later child victims was emerged. Quite late relating to documents adopted by European Union (Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on ‘Elder abuse’ in 2008) the problem of domestic violence has extended on seniors as another category of possible victims. The submitted report addresses the current and new phenomenon which requires consistent criminological behaviour as the basis for possible solutions in the legal order. Neglect of seniors, as new social phenomenon, requires rigorous examination in the light of the area of this term, as well as causes for which it occurs. The originators of this negative social phenomenon are considered to be not only children and grandchildren, but in some cases also subject (institutions) which are obliged to provide care for seniors on a contractual basis or ex lege.  The forms of neglect are based on general knowledge about domestic violence and are not beyond the framework of this phenomenon. Otherwise it is for the causes which are ground for violent behaviour of seniors because of necessity to be found in originators of violent forms of behaviour. Such causes include economic (financial, property) reason, as well as overworking, stress, lack of time on the side of the aggressors covering the lack of interest to care of the senior. The consequences of this violent behavior are very serious in the case of seniors because of the physical, psychological and financial possibilities of seniors often do not allow them to help and care any other way. The neglect of seniors is consistently showing very high latency. Only its versatile examination (criminological, legal and in terms of victims) can lead to effective control of this kind of crime. As a new social phenomenon, it is only very rarely determined in available sources, which is the reason why there is only a minimal amount of knowledge about the neglect of seniors. This negative phenomenon is needed to be thoroughly explored, which is the basis for its solution. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EMERGING TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE FOR IMPROVING HEALTHY LIFESTYLE AND FACTORS IMPACTING IT 2019-06-16T10:33:31+02:00 Svetlana Usca Helēna Vecenāne Dina Bethere This publication analyses and discusses the aspects of healthy lifestyle implementation competence in the personal life of students and future teachers, viewing it as a potential contribution to their professional career. The correlation of internal factors such as students' attitudes, knowledge, skills and abilities and influence of external factors of social environment are analysed as healthy lifestyle competence. The empirical study focuses on two priority healthy lifestyle components –physical activity and the development of healthy eating habits in relation to the conditions provided by a higher education microsystem formulating a proposal for improving the interaction of these factors. For achieving the research goal, emerging teachers have been surveyed using the methodology developed by Corbin et al. (2008). For statistical analysis of the research data, the SPSS 22.0 program was employed: a method of descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Kendall's tau-b correlation test. The results of this study prove the differences in competence indicators in relation to the respondents’ age and chosen specialization, as well as show the lack of support from professional management and medical staff for implementation of a healthy lifestyle. 2018-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TYPOLOGY OF THE DYSGRAPHIA ERRORS OF BILINGUAL PUPILS (ROMA AND TURKISH ETHNICITY) OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE 2019-02-20T12:03:18+01:00 Gencho Valchev Diyana Georgieva Maria Teneva <p>This article addresses the problems of integrating bilingual pupils (of Roma and Turkish origin) in primary school from a logopedic perspective. The main aim of the research is to compare qualitative and quantitative parameters of dysgraphia disorders and specify their types in bilingual and monolingual pupils (Bulgarians) of primary school age. The methods include exploring: basic graphic habits, phonematic perception, writing in different language situations, and identification and typology of specific dysgraphia errors according to certain criteria. The analysis indicates a similar negative trend among achievements of bilingual pupils, both Roma and Turks, whereas the monolingual learners, Bulgarians, prove to be most efficient in performing linguistic tasks. To a great extent, the results are predetermined by both the learners’ ethnolinguistic affiliation and the type of settlement in which they reside. At the same time, language interference has a negative impact on bilingual pupils’ attitudes and motivation to participate actively in their education and hence, it becomes a barrier to their socialization.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ELIMINATION OF CULTURAL LINGUISTIC GAPS IN THE LITHUANIAN TRANSLATION OF F. SCOTT FITZGERALD’S NOVEL “THE GREAT GATSBY” 2019-02-20T12:03:17+01:00 Giedrė Valūnaitė-Oleškevičienė Ramunė Eugenija Tovstucha Liudmila Mockienė Jelena Suchanova Andrius Puksas The aim of this study is to analyse the translation strategies of culture-specific items used in the Lithuanian translation of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel <em>The Great Gatsby</em>, published in 2013 by seeking to determine strategies chosen by the Lithuanian translator in order to eliminate cultural gaps related to culture-specific items, as well as to determine which of the strategies are predominant and therefore which translation approach prevails. The research is carried out relying on the classification of translation startegies provided by Pedersen (2005) which include strategies such as official equivalent, retention, specification, direct translation, generalization, substitution, and omission. Quantitative analysis is used to determine which strategies are predominant in the translation, while qualitative analysis is employed to discuss the reasonability of translator’s choices. Knowledge and awareness of the translation strategies of culture-specific items provide easily identifiable advice on how culture-specific items could be used and translated. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ROMA PEOPLE IN INTERGENERATIONAL LEARNING – EMERGING APPROACH TO LEARNING 2019-02-20T12:03:16+01:00 Barbora Vaněk <p>Intergenerational learning brings many benefits to individuals and society. It is based on mutual learning amongst generations with learning outcomes for each participant. Lifelong learning is challenged as a concept as it should be able to deal with diversity, marginalization and variety of social contexts while trying to promote inclusion and equity in societies. The article discusses intergenerational learning as a concept developing the educational potential of an adult, described as the ability of an individual to develop their personal attributes, to overcome problematic situations and to reach his/her objectives by andragogical intervention. Taking into consideration the Roma people, as one of the most marginalized ethnic groups (minority) in Slovakia, the following research question is raised: How can intergenerational learning, so widely beneficial, develop the educational potential of adult Roma?</p><p>Roma families are of open communication amongst family members, they often live more generations together in common household and thus potentially open to intergenerational learning. The research had a qualitative design that included individual interviews and focus groups conducted with Roma parents and teachers (37 interviewees overall), which was then evaluated by thematic content analysis. It should be noted that only preliminary findings are presented in this article. The results showed that amongst parents, the future education of their children was of greater value than the education they originally achieved. Their future is significantly linked to children’s development, which clearly represent a source of joy and happiness in their life. It was common for parents to prioritize the education and future of their children over their own. However, there were cases identified in which parents agreed they had learned something from their children: use of internet, social media and new technologies. Intergenerational learning clearly exists within Roma families, but is widely unintentional. Those families in which its use was intentional (stimulated by external intervention), the effect on children as well as Roma parents was beneficial. Common learning – mothers with children – occurs very naturally and can be structured, content based and intergenerational. Educational institutions such as schools can be highly effective facilitators of this process.   </p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A STUDY ON THE CAUSES OF STUDENTS’ DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN PRIMARY SCHOOL AND GYMNASIUM IN THE ROMANIAN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT 2019-02-20T12:03:15+01:00 Luiza Enachi-Vasluianu Flavia Malureanu <p>School today lays emphasis on developing skills which should ensure for children solid integration into society. Discipline is one of the skills which must be underlain in school. An efficient approach of discipline teaches students to assume responsibility and self-discipline. However, there have always been children who, for various reasons, break the discipline rules. Practice in school has shown that the factors that contribute to disruptive behaviour are connected to continuous changes in the social environment, curriculum idiosyncrasies, individual differences, the teacher-student relationship,the teacher’s act in classroom, the relationships among children in classroom / school, antipathy towards school, the need for social recognition, social isolation, impulsive behaviour, affective transfer, aggression in classroom / school, anxiety, absence of academic success, boredom, etc.</p><p>Our paper limits the research to a series of causes of students’ disruptive behaviour in primary school and gymnasium specific to the Romanian educational context. The data gathered provides information on the perspectives of teachers regarding the most relevant causes that affect discipline in classrooms. Their acknowledgement may be of help as it diminishes the time, the energy and the stress required to deal with inappropriate behaviour displayed by selecting efficient strategies to counterbalance it beforehand.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EMERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 2019-02-20T12:03:14+01:00 Galina B. Vlasova Vasily I. Vlasov Svetlana V. Denisenko The emergence of international law and periodization of its development remain relevant today.<strong> </strong>In general, most scientists consider that there were limited manifestations of international law in the era of Antiquity and the European Middle Ages. However, the manifestations that did emerge are significant.<strong> </strong>In particular, the practice of settling interstate agreements in the Ancient East evidences such importance. In the context of ancient civilization, this practice reached a new level. It led to the emergence of sufficiently broad alliances of states and at the same time, customary international law, as was observed in the international legal practices in the times of Hellenistic era and the era of the Roman Empire. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STAFFING INNOVATIONS IN THE MUNICIPAL TERRITORY 2019-02-20T12:03:13+01:00 Sergei A. Vorontsov Alexander V. Ponedelkov This article describes a sociological analysis of the staffing issues in municipal territories. The sustainability and stability that have been ensured in recent years in almost all spheres of life are critical for Russia, which is a multinational country with a complex federative structure and diversity of cultures. The sustainability of the national economy has substantially increased, although many unsolved problems remain. The issues of an ineffective system of state and municipal governance due to employees’ low professional level and corruptness are among these. This research examines the effective staffing in the municipal territories between June and August 2017. The territories are those of the Russian Federation republics of Karachay-Cherkess, Karelia, and North Ossetia-Alania; the oblasts of Volgograd, Rostov, Moscow, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Kurgan, and Chelyabinsk; and krais of Krasnodar and Stavropol. Methods involve a sociological survey to assess the effectiveness of local economic policies and the proficiency of local governing bodies in securing qualified managers who are capable of innovative development. The research focuses on the effectiveness of manager rotation in the local governing bodies in the municipalities. The purpose of the research is to reveal the main obstacles to forming a staffing reserve for solving new tasks relevant to the high competitiveness of the municipal territories. It also assesses the personal qualities required of the officials in these local governing bodies and the measures needed to effectively implement investment potential and increase municipal territory competitiveness. The paper concludes with a summary of trends needed to increase the effectiveness of the municipal staff in the surveyed regions of the Russian Federation. Among the main trends are increasing the qualifications of management staff, introducing an effective staff policy, procuring a reserve of staff with the necessary qualifications, implementing effective information coverage of staff policy in the region and the municipal territories to reduce the risk of corruption, and identifying ways to motivate staff using economic incentives. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FUNCTIONAL AND ADHERENCE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH THORACIC KYPHOSIS 2019-02-20T12:03:12+01:00 Elena Amaricai Thoracic kyphosis represents a widely spread spinal deviation that affects an increasing number of children and adolescents. It effects not only the development of children but can also have consequences on the ventilatory parameters and on the aerobic functional capacity.  The objectives of our study were to assess the respiratory function and functional capacity in children and adolescents with thoracic kyphosis who followed a physical therapy program and to compare these parameters to healthy controls. Another objective was to evaluate the adherence of this category of patients to a supervised exercise program. 20 children and adolescents diagnosed with thoracic kyphosis and 20 gender and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Our patients performed a twelve-week supervised exercise program. They were assessed at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation by spirometry (forced vital capacity-FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second-FEV1, peak expiratory flow-PEF and FEV1/FVC ratio) and functional capacity testing (6-minute walk test: 6MWT). A final assessment was conducted with the parents of the children and the adolescents with thoracic kyphosis where they completed an adherence questionnaire. In patients with thoracic kyphosis, their FVC, FEV1, PEF and 6-MWT scores improved significantly after the twelve-week program (p˂0.0001). After rehabilitation there were no differences between the study patients and controls, except for the functional capacity which had lower values in children and adolescents with thoracic kyphosis. Adherence to an exercise-based program could improve the outcomes of the rehabilitation. Besides the respiratory function and functional capacity, assessing adherence to therapy and improving it should be considered when treating pediatric patients suffering from thoracic kyphosis. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## JOURNEY OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS IN EASTERN EU STATES 2019-02-20T12:03:11+01:00 Stelian Baraitareanu Dragos Cobzariu Mihaela Popp Marius Valer Campeanu Doina Danes <p>INTRODUCTION: In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFv) broken its well-known boundaries. This was the reference year for the first report of African swine fever (ASF) in Georgia. Subsequently, the virus reached pigs and boars in Armenia and Russia. From the Caucasus area, ASFv jumped in all directions, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, in relation to the density of backyard pigs and their trade. In the next ten years there have been notifications and registrations of ASFv outbreaks in Russia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Moldova and the Czech Republic. Romania faced the first ASFv outbreak at the end of July 2017, in backyard pigs." in stead "density of backyard pigs and their trade. In the next ten years there have been notifications and registrations of ASFv outbreaks in Russia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Moldova and the Czech Republic. Romania faced the first ASFv outbreak at the end of July 2017, in backyard pigs.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of study is to analyse the ways ASFv spread from and into different regions recorded by Eastern European states.</p><p>METHODS: The immediate notifications on ASFv to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) were analysed from the Eastern-European states between 2007 and 2017. The analysis took into consideration the first occurrence of the disease under scrutiny in the country and the follow-up reports, in relation with the geospatial distribution of the outbreaks.</p><p>RESULTS: The main route of ASFv introduction into local pig populations indicated by the Member States of the European Union was the trans-boundary circulation of boars. However, the spread of ASFv through both, wild and domestic pigs and also by the human alimentary customs/traditions in the affected areas shouldn’t be ignored. Three cycles of ASFv transmission have been identified and described by the epidemiologists: the domestic cycle, the sylvatic cycle and the tick-pig cycle.</p><p>CONCLUSION: None of the ways to disseminate the ASFv should be excluded, and the origin of the first outbreaks remains unknown or inconclusive in Eastern EU states.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ORAL CARE HABITS, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF ADOLESCENTS IN THE CITY OF KLAIPEDA 2019-02-20T12:03:10+01:00 Šarūnė Barsevičienė Eglė Žymantienė Jurgita Andruškienė <p>Background. For many, the adolescent years can be a difficult emotional period and a time when dental and medical needs may be neglected. Oral health is one of the most unmet health care needs of adolescents. Oral diseases can have a profound effect on overall health, including pain, missed school, heart disease, and even death (Silk and Kwok, 2017).</p><p>Aim of the survey: to study the gender differences in oral hygiene habits, attitudes and behaviours in Klaipeda city adolescents sample.</p><p>Methods: There were 1206 questionnaires distributed (response rate 95.3 %). A total of 1150 adolescents participated in the study, with 52.4 % being girls, and the mean age was 13.4 years.</p><p>Results. The study results demonstrated girls more often brushed their teeth than boys, 86.8 % and 68.5 %, respectively (p&lt;0.001). Almost all the participants (98.5 %) used toothpaste and a toothbrush on a daily basis, but girls more often used dental floss (66.3 % as compared to boys 33.7 %, p&lt;0.001), mouthwash (60.3 % as compared to boys 39.7 %, p&lt;0.001) and other dental care products (79.5 % as compared to boys 20.5 %, p&lt;0.05) for toothbrushing and daily dental care. The girls brushed their teeth in the morning (92.9 %) and before bedtime (91.0 %), as well as the boys (85.0 % and 77.5 %, respectively, p&lt;0.001).</p><p>Conclusions. Girls demonstrated better oral health care habits, comparing to boys. Boys had greater, as compared to girls, dental fear, restricting them from having regular appointments for check-ups at the dental office. Girls more frequently than boys had an attitude that teeth should be kept clean for aesthetic purposes and in order to ensure their longevity. Girls preferred to seek a dentist’s help as soon as it is needed and to maintain good oral health, because it’s essential to human health in general.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NITROGEN MONOXIDE AS A FACTOR OF ACTIVATION OF THE PROOXIDANT SYSTEM ON THE BACKGROUND OF SUBSIDIES OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF OXYGEN IN NEWBORNS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS 2019-02-20T12:03:09+01:00 Oleksandr Buriak Nataliia Pavliukovych Oleksandr Pavliukovych Nataliia Popeliuk Tamara Kopchuk <p>Data about the peculiarities of metabolism of endogenous NO in modern literature are quite controversial, especially in newborns with respiratory distress who need artificial lung ventilation. Investigating of the peculiarities of peroxidation processes on the background of excessive accumulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolites due to the inhalation of different concentrations of oxygen among newborns with severe respiratory insufficiency.</p><p>84 newborns who were admitted to the department of intensive care of newborns were under investigation. They were randomized into groups according to their oxygen saturation index of the inhaled mixture. The exhaled breath condensate was tested for nitrogen monoxide metabolites, malonic aldehyde, aldehyde and ketone derivatives of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine of a neutral and basic (aggregates of protein molecules) nature.</p><p>Obtained results indicated that nitrogen monoxide (active oxidant) directly affects the increase of activity of processes of proteins and lipids peroxidation by increasing the total oxidation potential. Excessive endogenous NO formation under the conditions of subsidizing of high concentrations of oxygen leads to an increase in excessive formation of nitrogen monoxide and is a risk factor for the initiation of oxidative stress processes.</p><p>Thus, nitrogen monoxide is one of the factors of activation of free radical oxidation at the level of alveolar-capillary space among newborns with respiratory distress. In intensive care for newborns with severe respiratory failure, the use of excessive oxygen concentrations should be avoided, as on the background of increased endogenous NO formation, there is a risk factor for the toxic effect of oxygen on the biological structures due to the increased formation of active forms of oxygen with the development of oxidative stress.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## OBTAINING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA USING THE PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHIC METHOD 2019-02-20T12:03:08+01:00 Krasimir Cheshmedzhiev Galya Georgieva-Tsaneva The activity of the cardiovascular system is very important for the overall health of a human being. The Photoplethysmographic method is an effective tool of assessing the activity of the heart. The method is based on recording changes in blood volume in the blood vessels of the individual. The report presents a non-invasive way to obtain physiological data using a created device based on the Photoplethysmographic method. The created device consists of a photodetector, infrared light-emitting diodes, and small pulse rate sensors. The proposed portable device has been tested with three types of interfaces. The received data from the Photoplethysmographic device is transmitted to a personal computer and stored for further processing. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NON-THYROIDAL ILLNESS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS OF NON-VIRAL ETHIOLOGY 2019-02-20T12:03:07+01:00 Krystyna Chympoi Oksana Olinik Yana Teleki Nadiia Palibroda Maryna Patratii <p>INTRODUCTION: The effect of hormonal status on the functional state of the liver and endocrine disfunction caused by liver diseases are beyond doubt for most authors.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess thyroid homeostasis in patients with chronic hepatitis and analyze the association between serum thyroid parameters and A/C polymorphism of the deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) gene.</p><p>METHODS: The study was conducted on 50 patients with chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy controls. The serum free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and fT3/fT4, fT4/fT3, TSH/fT3, TSH/fT4 ratio, thyroid index and total thyroid index were calculated. The alleles of the polymorphic A/C sites in the DIO1 gene were studied.</p><p>RESULT: The level of fT3 was reduced and fT4 level was increased in patients with chronic hepatitis. The fT3/fT4 ratio decreased below the reference range and fT4/fT3 ratio increased by 24,1%. Elevation of the TSH level and TSH/fT3 ratio were determined. The titres of tyroglobulin autoantibodies and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies significantly exceeded the control values.</p><p>It has been established that the carriage of the C-allele DIO1 was associated with an increasing fТ3 level and fТ3/fТ4 ratio, and a decreasing fТ4/fТ3 ratio and fТ4 level, while the presence of А-allele resulted in a decrease in the fТ3/fТ4 ratio and serum fТ3 with the increase in Т4 level in patients with chronic hepatitis.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hepatitis is accompanied by the development of non-thyroidal illness syndrome. Pathologycal changes in thyroid metabolism are associated with A/C polymorphism of the DIO1 gene.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## POST-MORTEM INTERVAL ESTIMATION USING POLYCRYSTALLINE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FILMS TWO-DIMENSIONAL CARTOGRAPHY OF MUTUAL LASER POLARIZATION DISTRIBUTION LEVELS 2019-02-20T12:03:06+01:00 Marta Garazdiuk Oleh Wanchuliak Oleksandr Pavlyukovich Natalia Pavlyukovich Oleksandr Garazdiuk <p>Post-mortem interval estimation is one of the most important issues in forensic practice. Optical diagnostic methods of biological tissue structure assessment are perspective in this area.</p><p>The objects of investigation are polycrystalline films of cerebrospinal fluid, taken from 64 corpses with accurately known times of death and 15 healthy volunteers.</p><p>The method of two-dimensional stokes-polarimetric mapping of distributions of a complex degree of mutual polarization with spatial-frequency filtration of microscopic images of cerebrospinal fluid films in the time monitoring of post-mortem changes in optical manifestations of polycrystalline networks has been tested in order to estimate the post-mortem interval. The most sensitive post-mortem changes in the optical manifestations of polycrystalline cerebrospinal fluid networks are revealed - statistical moments of the third and fourth orders that characterize the asymmetry and the excess (severity of the peak) of the distributions of values of the complex degree of mutual polarization of large-scale components of cerebrospinal fluid polycrystalline films microscopic images.</p><p>An interval of 48 hours with the accuracy of the post-mortem interval estimation in ± 30 minutes were established by the method of two-dimensional mapping of distributions of the values of a complex degree of mutual polarization of large-scale component of cerebrospinal fluid films microscopic images.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY ON 1-(3-(4-BENZYLPIPERAZIN-1-YL)PROPYL)-3,7-DIMETHYL-1H-PURINE-2,6(3H,7H)-DIONE AS AN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR 2019-02-20T12:03:05+01:00 Maria Hristova Mariyana Atanasova Iva Valkova Lilya Andonova Irini Doytchinova Alexander Zlatkov <p>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a good target in the design of new drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The currently known drugs -donepezil, galantamine and rivastignime- act as moderate AChE inhibitors. In the present study, we docked a newly synthesized arylpiperazine derivative 1-(3-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione (LA1) into <em>rh</em>AChE and identified its binding mode. The docking pose of the studied LA1 molecule depends of the protonated state of the nitrogen atom of the piperazine moiety where in the best scored poses, the xanthine moiety of LA1 is bound into the catalytic active site (CAS) of AChE, while the arylpiperazine fragment is placed into the peripheral binding site (PAS). The Ellman’s test confirmed the compound binding. LA1 has good permeability through the GIT and BBB assessed by PAMPA. LA1 is a prospective lead for AChE inhibition.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## VECTOR-BORNE PATHOGENS-TESTING IN A ROMANIAN CANINE BLOOD BANK 2019-02-20T12:03:04+01:00 Teodor-Stefan Ionescu Sinziana Radulescu Ruxandra Florea Stelian Baraitareanu Doina Danes <p>INTRODUCTION: Canine blood banking in veterinary medicine is an expanding market. Once the demand for blood products increased all over the world, canine blood banks have focused attention on the risk of spreading diseases through blood transfused products. The need to preserve a healthy donor-pool, free of blood-borne infectious diseases, mainly in endemic areas, led to the implementation of appropriate protocols for screening canine blood donors using specific tests.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of <em>Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasmaplatys</em>, <em>Echrlichiacanis/Echrlichiaewingii</em>, <em>Dirofilariaimmitis </em>and <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> using the enzyme immunoassay technology (EIA) among the donors of a Romanian canine blood bank, from January 2015 to December 2016.</p><p>METHODS: Blood samples from 575 donors were collected and 1253 tests were performed with SNAP 4DX Plus® (IDEXX Laboratories, Fremont, CA) to reveal the presence of <em>D. immitis</em> antigens and the antibodies toward <em>A. phagocytophilum</em> and/or <em>A. platys</em>, <em>E. canis</em> and/or <em>E. ewingii</em> and <em>B. burgdorferi</em>.</p><p>RESULTS: The results of this holistic approach show that all blood samples provided negative results for <em>B. burgdorferi</em> and <em>E.canis/E. ewingii</em> (0/1253), while 0.87% (11/1253) samples provided positive results for <em>A. phagocytophilum/A. platys</em> and 6.94% (87/1253) for <em>D. immitis</em>.</p><p>CONCLUSION: The next studied topic would be to compare the results provided by the EIA technology with results of real time PCR and qPCR regarding these vector-borne pathogens.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE INCIDENCE AND CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF ANEMIA IN OLDER PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE 2019-02-20T12:03:04+01:00 Alpha James Nataliia Pavliukovych Oleksandr Pavliukovych <p>INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the presence of anemia is associated with increased short- and long-term outcomes in patients with cardio-vascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease. Decreased hemoglobin level is associated with increased mortality, increased frequency of hospitalization due to different reasons, decreased quality of life and worsening of the clinical course of the main and comorbid diseases. Knowledge about the origin of the patient’s anemia should result in its treatment and possible prevention of the rapid progression of the main cardio-vascular disease, particularly in elderly patients.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: determination of the incidence and characteristic features of anemia in elderly and senile patients with chronic forms of coronary artery disease.</p><p>METHODS: 1993 case reports of patients with chronic forms of coronary artery disease with comorbid anemia were analyzed retrospectively.</p><p>RESULTS: Among all examined patients with coronary artery disease, anemia is found in nearly 70% of cases. In people after the age of 60, anemia is more common in men than in women. Only in less than a hundred case reports, the diagnosis of anemia was recorded in the final clinical diagnosis during patients’ discharge from the hospital. The incidence of anemia does not depend on the form of the chronic CAD (stable angina pectoris or cardiosclerosis).  In most patients with CAD, comorbid anemia is of a normochromic and normocytic character. Along with the progression of the severity of the comorbid anemia, a statistically significant increase of the hospitalization period is observed. In patients with CAD and comorbid anemia the frequency of hospitalizations per year is also increased.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Chronic forms of coronary artery disease in elderly and senile patients in 69,89% of cases are complicated by comorbid anemia of different degrees of severity. In older patients with CAD, anemic syndrome is most often caused by respiratory diseases, stomach and duodenal ulcers, and cancer of various localizations. In most patients with CAD, comorbid anemia is of a normochromic and normocytic character. Concomitant anemia in patients with CAD contributes to the prolongation of the patients’ in-hospital treatment and increases the frequency of hospitalizations due to the main disease throughout the year.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF THE DEGREE OF ADHERENCE TO THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DIAGNOSED DEPRESSION 2019-02-20T12:03:03+01:00 Antonia Kondova Anna Todorova Antoaneta Tsvetkova Kalina Andreevska Daniela Grekova Valentina Petkova <p>Introduction: Depression is the most common form of mental disorder of great social significance. Antidepressant treatment is a standard approach to treat depressed patients, but in order to be effective, patients need to follow their strictly prescribed treatments. Bad compliances are mostly associated with side effects, poor patient awareness, comorbidity of the disease, and a lack of communication with healthcare professionals.</p><p>Objectives: The aim is to investigate the level of adherence to the therapy of patients with a diagnosed depressive condition.</p><p>Methods: In order to achieve this aim, a survey was conducted among 120 patients with diagnosed depression when receiving their prescribed drugs from a pharmacy. Determination of patient`s adherence was done using the Morriski test- as well as a short questionnaire in parallel as a validated tool giving a clear idea of the degree of adherence to therapy.</p><p>Results: The results show that the patients under study exhibited unsatisfactory adherence to the assigned therapy. The total coefficient for the entire population is 1.68. Compared with the reference values (0-4), patients were found to have 42% adherence.</p><p>Conclusions: Inadequate adherence to therapy leads to a worsening of the condition of patients with depression while also increasing the cost of health care. A number of approaches are required such as patient education, quality communication between doctors, patients and pharmacists, socio-economic measures to change patient's beliefs and perceptions of treatment, and to improve adherence to the therapy and quality of life of patients suffering from depression.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PILOT SURVEY OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS IN BULGARIA ON INTEGRATING EBM TRAINING IN MEDICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM 2019-02-20T12:03:01+01:00 Nikoleta Leventi Antoniya Yanakieva <p>INTRODUCTION: Many medical schools all over the world have incorporated evidence-based medicine (EBM) training into their curriculum. According to their results, teaching EBM helps health professionals both to update their knowledge and also to provide better care to their patients in their daily practice while improving the quality of the healthcare system. </p><p>OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this paper is to present the necessity of the integration of EBM training into the medical curriculum in order to improve the quality of education. The introduction of EBM in medical professionals’ education in Bulgaria is explored with a pilot study together with the respective opportunities and challenges.</p><p>METHODS: About one hundred practicing medical professionals (physicians, dentists, nurses, midwives, and physiotherapists) were included in this pilot study. A paper questionnaire, including three parts (demographic characteristics, attitude towards EBM, application of EBM in everyday clinical practice), was used for collecting data.</p><p>RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 84 medical professionals. From the respondents 55 were familiar with the term EBM. The majority (59) of the participants agreed that EBM training would help them in their daily practice. According to 59 of the respondents EBM improves the quality of the provided health and care services to the patients. From the data collected, 65 participants support the necessity of incorporating EBM in their medical education, 9 do not support, and 10 cannot evaluate. Most of the respondents (69) speak and understand a foreign language good enough to read and understand scientific literature without difficulty, as well as the majority (81) of the participants reported computer skills at a good level.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Data from this pilot study demonstrated a positive attitude from medical professionals toward EBM. The majority confirmed the need to integrate EBM training as a discipline into the medical education curriculum. </p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EFFECT OF STRENGTH EXERCISE ON THICKNESS AND FUNCTION OF QUADRICEPS MUSCLE IN SPORTING AND NON-SPORTING 11-13 YEAR OLD CHILDREN 2019-02-20T12:03:01+01:00 Lina Levickienė Daiva Imbrasienė Monika Pocienė Vanda Jakubaitienė <p>BACKGROUND: Physical activity is the key factor in a child’s development and strong health. This includes physical, mental and functional body states. In Lithuania, as in the whole world, the physical activity of children is decreasing and this affects their growth and maturation.</p><p>OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To evaluate the effect of exercises on the thickness and function of the quadriceps thigh muscle of sporting and non-sporting children 11-13 years of age.</p><p>METHODS: The research was carried out at one of Kaunas basic schools. Two tests were performed for this purpose before and after the study. In the study, a dominant leg measuring test and the thickness, volume and strength measuring of the quadriceps thigh muscle was performed. The received data was processed using SPSS 17.0 and a mathematical calculator in Microsoft Office Excel. The study lasted 5 months and a leg muscle strengthening exercise program was performed for 30 minutes twice a week. The participants performed 30 exercises in total.</p><p>RESULTS: The study involved 36 participants, which were grouped in two groups of 18 participants. Assessing the results of a study between a dominant and non-dominant leg, we found that the results of all measurements in both groups were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05). By analyzing the results of sporting and non-sporting groups before as well as after the study and after calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients, a greater link between the measured parameters was determined in the sporting group.</p>CONCLUSION: The results showed that the studied parameters (thickness, force and volume of the quadriceps thigh muscle) statistically increased significantly after strength exercises. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## OPTIMIZATION OF KIDNEYS’ DETOXICATION FUNCTION OF SEPTIC PATIENTS IN THE PERIOD OF STABILIZATION OF TOXIC AUTOAGRESION 2019-02-20T12:03:00+01:00 Natalia Maksymchuk Victor Konovchuk <p>INTRODUCTION: Kidney injuries in the endogenous intoxication syndrome of septic genesis necessitates nephroprotective therapy.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to determine the effect of the combined use of sorbilact and L-arginine on the detoxification function of kidneys and the levels of separate indicators of endogenous intoxication syndrome.</p><p>METHODS: Detoxication function of kidneys have been studied in patients of the following groups.</p><p>The first group (І, control) consisted of 31 patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, ICD-10: R-65.2).</p><p>The second group (ІІ) consisted of 22 patients with endogenous intoxication syndrome who were treated according to Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2016 (standard therapy) [9].</p><p>The third group (IІІ) consisted of 24 patients with endogenous intoxication syndrome, who received sorbilact in addition to standard therapy.</p><p>The fourth group (IV) consisted of 21 patients with endogenous intoxication syndrome who received sorbilact and L-arginine in addition to standard therapy.</p><p>Sorbilact infusion to patients of the III and IV groups was performed at a rate of 6-7 ml/kg body weight, intravenously dripping at a rate of 7-8 ml/min. After the end of the infusion of sorbilact, patients of the IV group were infused with 4.2% solution of L-arginine (“Tivortin” intravenous drip according to the instructions). Data was obtained and results gathered on the application of drugs in the period of stabilization (according to the state of regulation of water and ion balance by kidneys) of endogenous intoxication syndrome (fourth day of drugs’ application).</p><p>As a single-celled receptor-effector system, a Paramecium caudatum culture was used. Low Molecular Weight Protein (LMWP) concentrations in blood and urine were determined using a modified method.</p><p>RESULTS: Endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients of II-IV groups was characterized by the following indicators: total blood plasma toxicity (Pt) in the II group was 151 ± 6.4 toxicity units / ml, in group ІІ -147 ± 6.2 toxicity units / ml and 130 ± 6.6 toxicity units / ml in group IV. LMWP concentration in group ІІ was 0.61 ± 0.03 conditional units / ml, in ІІІ group - 0.52 ± 0.029 conditional units / ml and 0.43 ± 0.037 conditional units / ml in group IV.</p><p>The following clearance detoxification function characteristics are established, which are integral indicators of its kidneys performance. Clearance of toxic substances (Ct) in the I group was 2.7 ± 0.06 ml / min, in the II group 2.1 ± 0.09 ml / min, in the III group - 2.9 ± 0.07 ml / min and 3.8 ± 0.08 ml / min in the IV group. Clearness of LMWP (C <sub>LMWP</sub>) in the 1st group was 15.91 ± 0.69, ml / min, in the II group 14.65 ± 0.79 ml / min, in group ІІІ - 25.61 ± 0.71 ml / min and 37.31 ± 0.7 ml / min in group IV.</p><p>CONCLUSION: Under conditions of septic endotoxemia in the period of stabilization of endogenous intoxication syndrome optimization of standard therapy with the use of sorbilact and L-arginine is accompanied by the activation of the kidneys’detoxication function according to their clearance characteristics.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STANDARDIZED NURSING PLANS AND THEIR CLINICAL USE 2019-02-20T12:02:59+01:00 Monika Mankovecká This paper states the results of the study on the verification of the applicability of standardized nursing plans in clinical practice. The aim was to develop an effective model of managed nursing care for patients deficient in breathing. The research methods used were: a thought experiment, an experiment, a content analysis, and a survey. From the results,<strong> </strong>the author suggested four nursing plans which solve actual respiratory deficit. A basis for diagnosis was the classification system of nursing diagnoses NANDA. The plans were verified in two faculty hospitals at clinics of anaesthesiology and intensive medicine. Based on the standardized nursing plans, nursing care quality increased by 19 %. After analysis of the unmet criteria, the author found the most problematic criteria that were inconsistent with the standard. In the last part of the study, a survey of the nurses defined the advantages of standardized plans for nurses and patients. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COPING AND EMOTIONAL COMFORT OF CAREGIVERS 2019-02-20T12:02:58+01:00 Mária Novysedláková Katarína Zrubáková Mariana Magerčiaková Eva Moraučíková <p class="Normln1">Introduction: The aim of this research is to find coping strategies for dealing with stress among caregivers who look after a chronically ill family member and to assess which of the most common emotions they are experiencing.</p><p class="Normln1">Methods: We used a standard 28-item questionnaire Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) with Likert scale with values of 6-1 and standardized Variety habitual emotional, subjective well-being in this study (Džuka, Dalbert, 2002). The questionnaire was distributed by nurses who care for ill relatives in the  Home Care Agency. We used descriptive statistical methods.</p><p class="Normln1">Results:  Exploratory data includes answers from 30 respondents, who were caregivers of a patient  with chronic illness at home. The average age of respondents was 66.3 years + 4,5, ranged between 56 and 71 years old. Concerning the custodies, these were the most often the  life partners - husband / wife (63 %). The average length of treatment was half a year - year (27 %). Top active strategies for coping with stress were: planning, instrumental social support, acceptance, religiosity, emotional support, with the average  from 4,65 to 4,27. The least used coping strategies were humor and drug use. Respondents experienced more frequent  negative than positive emotions - pain with average 4,30, sadness 4,24,  fear 4.23,</p><p class="Normln1">Conclusion:  The study shows that the caregivers can select an active strategy to help them overcome difficulties while taking  care of the sick.  When assessing emotional survival, we found out that respondents had negative emotions.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE 2019-02-20T12:02:57+01:00 Yeliz Serin Gamze Akbulut <p>Objective: This study evaluated the effect of nutrition on health-related quality of life in adult celiac patients.</p><p>Material-Methods: A total of 103 individuals (26 males and 77 females) diagnosed with celiac disease by a physician, registered in the Ankara Celiac Society, and between 20 and 50 years old were enrolled in the study. Research data was collected using the face-to-face survey method with the “Celiac Disease in Health-Related Quality of Life Survey” to evaluate participants’ quality of life. Patient nutrient intake was determined using the 24-hour dietary recall method.</p><p>Results: The mean age of the patients was 37.5±8.89 years and the age at diagnosis was 31.0±11.85 years. The body mass index value was 22.7±3.57 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. When the nutritional status of the participants was evaluated, the energy received from carbohydrates and protein was less, whereas the energy received from fat was more than the general recommendations. When the total quality of life score was evaluated, the average scores of men were higher than women (146.6±17.51 vs. 123.7±24.78). In addition, the total and subscale quality of life scores varied by gender, comorbid conditions, compliance with a gluten-free diet, and the duration of the gluten-free diet.</p><p>Conclusions: Celiac is a disease that requires a lifelong gluten-free diet. Most celiac patients have nutritional deficiencies and poor quality of life standards. In order to prevent these deficiencies, commercially prepared foods should be enriched, especially in vitamins and minerals. In addition, increasing awareness of celiac disease in society positively affects the quality of life of individuals.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ASSOCIATION OF THE ADRB2 GENE POLYMORPHIC VARIANT C79G (rs1072714) WITH THE COURSE OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN OBESE AND NON-OBESE PATIENTS 2019-02-20T12:02:56+01:00 Ganna Stupnytska Nataliya Gorovenko Svetlana Podolska Zoriana Kit Michael Sheremet Anatoliy Kovtun Olga Nesterovska <p>Introduction:<strong> </strong>Attention has been paid to studying the role of the sympathetic nervous system and polymorphism of the β<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor genes in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in recent years, but the findings of the studies contradict each other.</p><p>Objective:  To establish an association between the ADRB2 gene polymorphic variant C79G (rs1072714) in obese and non-obese COPD patients.</p><p>Methods:<strong> </strong>The study involved 48 obese COPD patients and 52 nonobese COPD patients. The ADRB2 gene polymorphic variant C79G (rs1072714) was genotyped and assessed by the CAT test and the BODE index.</p><p>Results: It has been established that in obese COPD patients the CAT test was significantly higher in the genotype GG (24.25 ± 4.25) compared to those with obesity and the genotype CC and CG (p &lt;0.05). The BODE index was significantly (p &lt;0.05) lower in obese COPD patients. A strong positive correlation between BMI and FEV<sub>1</sub> (r = 0.742, p = 0.014) in nonobese COPD patients with GG genotype has been found.</p><p>Conclusion:<strong>  </strong>According to the CAT test, the quality of life in obese COPD patients with GG genotype is worse. The BODE index in obese COPD patients with CC and CG genotypes was significantly lower than in those without obesity. A strong positive correlation between BMI and FEV<sub>1</sub> in COPD patients without obesity with GG genotype has been established.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EMBRYOGENESIS OF THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 2019-02-20T12:02:55+01:00 Olexandr Tsyhykalo Аlla Khodorovska Iryna Popova One of the topical issues of morphology is studying general regulations of development and structural formation dynamics of respiratory system. The aim of the study was to determine peculiarities of the embryogenesis of respiratory system organs during prenatal development in humans. Research was conducted on 22 series of histological specimens of human embryos which were 4,5-8,0 mm of parieto-cocygeal lengths (PLC), and by using complex morphological methods of study (morphometry, histological assessment, three-dimensional reconstruction). It was established that the source of human lungs primordium is a traheopulmonary primordium, which at the end of 4<sup>th</sup> week of human prenatal development is represented by an odd bud-shaped entity which departs with an acute angle from the ventral wall of the foregut and is located in front of foregut. The beginning of the 5<sup>th</sup> week of human prenatal development is considered to be a critical period, which holds intensive processes of organogenesis of the respiratory system and is a possible time for the occurrence of some congenital defects or anomalies and structural variants. Sources of pulmonary vessels are islands of intraorgan hematopoiesis and extraorgan main vessels, communication between which occurs during the end of 4<sup>th</sup> and at the start of 5<sup>th</sup> weeks of human prenatal development. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DETERMINING THE STATUS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY AND IN THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD 2019-02-20T12:02:54+01:00 Rukiye Türk Reyhan Erkaya <p>Problem Statement: The anxiety and depression experienced during pregnancy and in the postpartum period is of considerable importance in terms of the health of the mother and her infant.</p><p>Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the status of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.</p><p>Methods: The research sample consisted of 100 primiparae and 100 multiparae who had consented to participate in the study. Data was collected with a questionnaire, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS).</p><p>Findings and Results: It was found that during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, primiparae experienced a higher level of state and trait anxiety compared to multiparae and that the rate of depression was higher in multiparae compared to primiparae.</p><p>Conclusions and Recommendations: It was determined that primiparae experienced more anxiety than multiparae (p&lt;0.05) during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and that multiparae experienced depression at a higher rate. Therefore, our recommendation is that healthcare personnel provide women with a regular program of education and consulting services to meet their needs during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROGRAMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 2019-02-20T12:02:53+01:00 Ana Maria Zorlescu Stelian Baraitareanu Doina Danes <p>INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the topical issues that is part of the “One Health” concept with implications for animal health, human health, and even environmental “health”. At the European Commission (EC) level, legislation has been issued for the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and these rules are applicable by each Member State (MS). For the proper implementation of the above legislation, audits are carried out in Member States that have developed programs on antimicrobial resistance that go beyond the EC's requests.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was the analysis of existing data reports, legislation and recommendations on antimicrobial resistance through which surveillance and monitoring is carried out in the European Union (EU).  </p><p>METHODS: The audit reports issued between 2015 and 2017 by the Food Veterinary Office (FVO), as well as the articles and studies issued by the EC through the antimicrobial resistance institutes were analysed.</p><p>RESULTS: The FVO conducted audits to “evaluate the monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in certain food-producing animal populations and food” in 12 MS, and audits to “gather information on the prudent use of antimicrobials in animals” in 8 MS. These are countries that have very well implemented the EC's requests and included the “One Health” perspective in antimicrobial resistance programs. Some Member States have risk management strategies for reducing antimicrobial resistance for more than 20 years. They have carried out research projects on antimicrobial resistance. There is an action plan on antimicrobial resistance at the EC level, but their implementation and understanding up to the level of all actors involved in this issue varies from MS to MS. Antimicrobial resistance in the animal population is a topical issue, notoriety among the actors involved, as well as an interdisciplinary problem with indirect results. The same principle of antimicrobial resistance in animals is applicable to humans and the environment as such, this problem can be embedded in the concept of “One Health”. The overall objective of the MS is to generate knowledge and tools to “combat” antimicrobial resistance in animals, humans and even the environment.</p><p>CONCLUSION: As a conclusion, in order to improve and optimize antimicrobial resistance programs, a “good practice guide” can be achieved by MS with extensive experience in this area, to be used by MS with a more precarious application and over time to harmonize antimicrobial resistance programs within the EU.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TRICHOBEZOAR OF A SMALL INTESTINE IN A 10 YEAR OLD FEMALE 2019-02-20T12:02:52+01:00 Ievgen Mozhaiev Natalia Mozhaieva Yuliya Modna Daniel Khashchuk <p>The majority of items which accidentally enter the organism significantly threaten the health and life of a child. The problem of bezoars in the practice of pediatric surgeons and emergency pediatric surgery remains relevant, as evidenced by this clinical case. As a clinical picture of bezoars is diverse and this pathology is quite rare in childhood each case with a bezoar represents a practical interest for pediatric surgeons. This case is interesting because it describes a clinical case involving a bezoar of a child’s small intestine with the clinical picture of an acute mechanical (obstructive) intestinal obstruction.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WEST GEORGIAN HONEY CATIONS 2019-02-20T12:02:51+01:00 Nona Abashidze Maia Vanidze Maia Kharadze Indira Djaparidze Aleko Kalandia <p>The present study was conducted to determine the content of four mineral elements in honeys originating from different regions of West Georgia. Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and Ammonium (NH4+) were analyzed by HPLC-Conductivity, column “Cation” (3.9x150mm) solvent 0.1 mM EDTA 3mM HNO<sub>3, </sub>following the microwave digestion of the honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca and Mg being the most abundant elements with mean concentrations in Chestnut honey 5000-7000 ppm, 56-150 ppm, 40-230 ppm, 25-130 ppm, respectively. In Lime (Tilia) honey - 2400-2600 ppm, 30-50 ppm, 160-180 ppm, 45-60 ppm, Acacia honey 300-500 ppm, 35-45 ppm, 85-95 ppm, 15-25 ppm, Field honey -750-930 ppm, 35-45 ppm, 75-130 ppm, 25-35 ppm, Spring polyflora honey - 630-650 ppm, 45-50 ppm, 280-300 ppm, 25-35 ppm, Autumn polyflora Honey – 2500-3000 ppm, 80-100 ppm, 250-300 ppm, 80-100 ppm respectively. The correlation dependence was between the content of cations in the honey and conductivity (Chestnut honey 1.4 µs/cm, Lime (Tilia), honey 0.5 µs/cm, Acacia honey 0.16 µs/cm, Field honey 0.55 µs/cm, Spring polyflora honey 1.2 µs/cm, Autumn polyflora Honey 1.3 µs/cm)</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ACHIEVING MAXIMUM SFN SIZE FOR A DVB-T2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM 2019-02-20T12:02:51+01:00 Loreta Andoni The GE-06 Agreement “On planning the terrestrial digital broadcasting services in parts of Region 1 and 3, in the frequency bands of 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz” has been based in the DVB-T system of transmission. Most of the signatory countries of this agreement use or are going to use the most advanced digital terrestrial technology such as DVB-T2. One of the main advantages of DVB-T2 comparing with DVB-T is an increased size of SFN networks, which is closely related with guard interval or inter-transmitters distances. To achieve the maximum size of DVB-T2 SFNs, it is important to find optimal parameters of DVB-T2 networks. But even though the GE-06 Plan gives opportunities to implement DVB-T2 there are some limitations on using all its benefits. One of these limitations is the availability to increase the distance between transmitters because changes in the location of any transmitter require long and intensive coordination with neighboring countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the optimal DVB-T2 networks configuration for two existing SFN networks in Albania with the purpose to achieve maximum SFN size without adding transmitters or changing the location of existing transmitters. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## VIRTUAL TOXICITY AND DRUG LIKENESS OF NEWLY SYNTHESIZED METHYLXANTHINES WITH N1 ARYLPIPERAZINE MOIETY 2019-02-20T12:02:49+01:00 Lily Andonova Maya Georgieva Alexander Zlatkov Aiming to obtain preliminary information on the toxicity, stability and pharmacokinetic behavior of a group of 12 methylxanthines, containing an arylpiperazine moiety at N<sup>1</sup>, we applied three virtual methods for prediction. The online hazard-screening tool-PBT profiler was used for toxicity evaluation. The pharmacokinetic behavior and drug like properties of the tested compounds were predicted by two online platforms: Molinspiration Cheminformatics and OSIRIS web-based server. The PBT-profiler tool determined, that the investigated compounds are soil persistent, do not bioaccumulate in the food chain and with the exception of the structures containing bulky bi-phenyl substituents all other molecules are of moderate toxicity. All tested compounds meet Lipinski’s Rule of Five border conditions and have high values for drug likeness and drug score, which makes them suitable for future optimizations. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## OPTIMIZATION OF DONNAN DIALYSIS FOR ALUM RECOVERY USING BOX BEHNKEN DESIGN 2019-02-20T12:02:48+01:00 Dennis Asante-Sackey Sudesh Rathilal Emmanuel Kweinor Tetteh Lingam Pillay Most potable water treatment plants use aluminium salts as coagulants. This generates a lot of treatment residue which consist of a high amount of aluminium in the residue matrix. Recovery of the alum-coagulant from the potable water treatment for reuse provides direct process and economic advantages. Donnan Dialysis is an ion exchange process that has a proven advantage in coagulant recovery. The commercial application of this process requires bench scale optimization before implementation. In this study, a response surface methodology is applied to the Donnan system. Incorporated with the Box-Behnken experimental matrix, the main and interactional effects of input variables for optimum alum recovery was determined. The Nafion 117 cation exchange membrane was used. Using experimental results, the quadratic statistical module generated was significant with a low P-value (&lt;0.001).  The statistical prediction from experimental results shows that high recoveries of 85-96% can be achieved. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## POSSIBILITY OF TRANSMITTING ALARM MESSAGES OVER THE RADIO NETWORK TO THE MONITORING AND ALARM RECEIVING CENTRE 2019-02-20T12:02:47+01:00 Martin Boroš Martin Halaj Andrej Veľas <p>Security has been and will probably be one of the basic human needs that we work on every day. Some of the popular options nowadays is the use of modern technologies in security, which is increasingly popular with alarm systems. Mostly alarm systems are electrical security systems, which in many cases can be supplemented by various additional functions according to the owner's requirements. More often, they are also able to connect a secured object to a centralized protection center so that the owner has the possibility of verifying a declared alarm signal through the intervention of the alarm system company operator.</p>This article is aimed at transmitting the indicated alarm signal over a radio network to the centralized protection desk located in the monitoring and alarm receiving center with identification of the most appropriate option. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PROPOSAL FOR A MODEL OF EFFECTIVE REACTION TO NATURAL DISASTERS IN THE TERRITORY OF SLOVAKIA 2019-02-20T12:02:47+01:00 Daniel Brezina Ladislav Šimák The forecasting of natural disasters is more complicated than other crisis events. It requires the full use of special forces and means, which are intended to solve them. Crisis managers and many authorities or institutions are involved in the process of solving crisis events. They are exposed to psychical pressure because each phase or reaction must be made promptly and effectively. The authors focus on issues of risk and crisis management in the public sector in their research activities at the University of Žilina. The aim of this article is to propose a well-functioning and effective reaction to natural disasters in Slovakia. This model is proposed with schematic drawings illustrating the activities in each phase of reaction to a natural disaster. The model is based on international past experiences and various laws or ordinances of multiple ministries for the Slovak crisis management system. This article points to possibly optimizing the decision-making processes at all levels of crisis management, in particular to improve the local government level. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF COTTON FABRICS TREATED WITH 8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE AND BORAX 2019-02-20T12:02:46+01:00 Banu Yeşim Buyukakinci Erdem Tezcan <p>8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is a metal chelating agent that also has antibacterial properties against several different bacterial specie, but its use in cotton textile fabrics has not been tested before. 8HQ may be an alternative to heavy metal-based applications for antibacterial textile fabrics therefore, the aim of this research paper was to investigate the antibacterial properties of 8HQ and borax (BX) treated cotton fabrics for the medical textile industry.</p><p>The homogenous distribution of the treated chemicals was confirmed with SEM/EDX imaging. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were also tested against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and<em> </em><em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>bacteria by mimicking the ISO 20645:2004 Standard Test Method.</p><p>The highest antibacterial property was observed with the 8HQ+BX (8HB) treated cotton samples. Therefore, the 8HB treated cotton products have a potential for use especially in the medical fields mainly due to the absence of heavy metals and bacterial growth.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## LAB SCALE STUDY OF HRT AND OLR OPTIMIZATION IN A UASB TREATING SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTEWATER 2019-02-20T12:02:45+01:00 Martha N. Chollom Sudesh Rathilal Feroz M. Swalaha Babatunde F. Bakare Emmanuel Kweinor Tetteh As the quality of most water sources and the environment continue to deteriorate, the public is increasingly concerned about the issues of sustainability. To combat this, strict policies and legislations are being placed to enable the treatment of wastewaters before discharging and possibly reusing it.  Animal slaughterhouses have proven to be important sources of wastewater with high levels of organics such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), fats and proteins. Discharging wastewater without any form of treatment into receiving water bodies has shown to contaminant water sources and as well to be detrimental to aquatic animals. Anaerobic processes have been proposed as a good alternative for the treatment of wastewaters with high or medium organic loads. The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion offers substantial advantages over other biological methods of waste treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of process operational parameters on the performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The reactor was used for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater which was synthesised to emulate that obtainable from a slaughterhouse. Organic loading rate (OLR) was increased by varying the hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 8−16 hours. The temperature of the reactor was maintained at a constant 35 ̊C while the pH was varied from 6.5 to 7.5. The result of the work indicated an optimum OLR of 4.5−7.5 kgCOD.m<sup>-3</sup>.d<sup>-1</sup> and an optimum COD of 75−86%. Similarly, a biogas yield of 2850 ml/day was found to be the highest at a HRT of 12 hours at the optimum OLR. At the highest OLR, flotation occurred and consequently the active biomass was washed out from the reactor. The results indicated that anaerobic treatment systems are applicable to the treatment of wastewaters with high levels of organics. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ELECTROTRANSFER OF CYTOKINE GENES FOR CANCER TREATMENT 2019-02-20T12:02:44+01:00 Sonam Chopra Saulius Satkauskas Gene electrotransfer, which designates the combination of gene transfer and electroporation, is a physical method for transfecting genes into cells and tissues. Many reports for the utilization of this techniques in animals confirmed that gene electrotransfer is a safe and efficient method. One of the major advantages of electrogene therapy is that it does not result in systemic toxicity. Gene electrotransfer (GET) of plasmids encoding cytokines has been shown to generate a potent anti-tumor effect. Delivery of plasmids encoding cytokines induces not only a local immune response but a systemic one as well.  Cytokines can be used to stimulate host inflammatory responses and immunity to cancers.  This review aims to summarize preclinically tested cytokine genes with the help of electroporation for cancer treatment. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MULTIVARIATE CONTROL CHARTS BASED ON DATA DEPTH FOR SUBGROUP LOCATION AND SCALE - CASE STUDY 2019-02-20T12:02:43+01:00 Izabela D. Czabak-Górska The purpose of the article is to present a method for determining control charts, which allow to control few interrelated quality characteristics. Often, in production practice, there is a need to simultaneously control several interrelated quality characteristics. The use of univariate control charts, separately for each quality characteristics, may lead to inadequate corrective actions of a production process. In such situations, it is recommended to use multivariate control charts, for example, the T2 control chart. However, the use of this classic approach involves making complicated calculations. Therefore, the author of this paper suggests using multivariate control charts based on data depth proposed by Liu.  In this paper, the author presented the idea and principles of the multivariate control chart based on data depth and then, using it to assess the statistical stability of the process in a manufacturing company, engaged in the production of window fittings. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE OF X ̅ AND R CONTROL CHARTS FOR SKEWED DISTRIBUTION - CASE STUDY 2019-02-20T12:02:42+01:00 Izabela D. Czabak-Górska Marcin Lorenc <p>The purpose of the article is to determine the Type I error and Average Run Length values for charts   and R, for which control limits have been determined based on the Skewness Correction method (SC method), with an unknown probability distribution of the qualitative feature being tested. The study also used the Monte Carlo Simulation, in which two sampling methods were used to obtain random input scenarios - matching theoretical distributions (selected skewed distributions) and bootstrap resampling based on a manufacturing company’s measurement data. The presented article is a continuation of Czabak-Górska's (2016) research. The purpose of the article was to determine Type I error value and ARL type A for chart   and R, for which the control limits were determined based on the skewness correction method. For this purpose, measurement data from a company producing car seat frames. Presented case study showed that the chart determined using the skewness correction method works better for the data described by the gamma or log-normal distribution. This, in turn, may suggest that appropriate distribution was selected for the presented data, thanks to which it is possible to determine the course and nature of the process, which is important from the point of view of its further analysis, e.g. in terms of the process capability.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TECHNICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF DATABASE'S SECURITY IN THE LIGHT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF GENERAL DATA PROTECTION REGULATION 2019-02-20T12:02:41+01:00 Paweł Drąg Mateusz Szymura In the modern era, information is not only a valuable commodity, but also a potential source of threat, especially when it comes to personal data. The implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation seeks to unify regulations and safeguards in a same manner across the EU. The following paper surveys how the legal aspects of GDPR influence the existing technical framework of databases containing personal data. In this research we want to show if the already existing technical infrastructure and safeguards implemented in databases containing personal data are sufficient and if not, if implementing new ways of protecting of data will require creating entire new system of databases or only changing of existing framework. Therefore, we combine an analysis of legal texts with a technical analysis of existing and newly implemented safeguards. While the GDPR doesn’t answer what safeguards should be implemented (in the spirit of technological neutrality), the notion of pseudonymisation of the data is strongly advocated through the Regulation. In our paper we tried to show the algorithm, which create a pseudonymisation function that can change personal data into generic data with the possibility to reverse that process ad utilise data after de-pseudonymisation. Implementing safeguards based on the following function create a more safe environment for data safekeeping, while give nearly immediate access to data for authorised person, who can reverse pseudonymisation and transform generic data once more into personal data. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXERCISE OF MACHINE LEARNING USING SOME PYTHON TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 2019-02-20T12:02:40+01:00 Ertan Mustafa Geldiev Nayden Valkov Nenkov Mariana Mateeva Petrova One of the goals of predictive analytics training using Python tools is to create a "Model" from classified examples that classifies new examples from a Dataset. The purpose of different strategies and experiments is to create a more accurate prediction model. The goals we set out in the study are to achieve successive steps to find an accurate model for a dataset and preserving it for its subsequent use using the python instruments. Once we have found the right model, we save it and load it later, to classify if we have "phishing" in our case. In the case that the path we reach to the discovery of the search model, we can ask ourselves how much we can automate everything and whether a computer program can be written to automatically go through the unified steps and to find the right model? Due to the fact that the steps for finding the exact model are often unified and repetitive for different types of data, we have offered a hypothetical algorithm that could write a complex computer program searching for a model, for example when we have a classification task. This algorithm is rather directional and does not claim to be all-encompassing. The research explores some features of Python Scientific Python Packages like Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scipy and scycit-learn to create a more accurate model. The Dataset used for the research was downloaded free from the UCI Machine Learning Repository (UCI Machine Learning Repository, 2017). 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON AIR POLLUTION 2019-02-20T12:02:40+01:00 Hristina Harizanova-Bartos Zornitsa Stoyanova <p>Air pollution is of major importance to the environment. Last years the findings related to air pollution of the agricultural sector and the impact on it are crucial for the future development of plant and livestock breeding sectors. The main purpose of this paper is to identify, analyze and assess, on the one hand, the impacts of agriculture on air pollution and, on the other, agriculture as a pollutant. The conclusions drawn will serve as suggestions for the introduction of practices and mechanisms in agriculture that will contribute to the improvement of the environment and in particular the quality of the air.</p><p>The object of the survey is the agrarian sector, and the subject of the research is 1) the impact of air pollution on the agrarian sector and 2) the effects of agrarian activities on air pollution. The paper is based on the following sequence: theoretical framework, analysis of statistical information and a survey of agrarian, environmental and agroecology experts. The survey is made under the scientific project DN 15/8 11.12. 2017 Sustainable multifunctional rural areas: reconsidering agricultural models and systems with increased demands and limited resources.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INTRINSIC SAFETY AND POSITIVE SECURITY WITH AN EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTION FOR EQUIPMENT USED IN SPACES WITH AN EXPLOSIVE POTENTIAL ATMOSPHERE 2019-02-20T12:02:39+01:00 Gabriel Ioan Ilcea Pop Emil Ionut-Alin Popa In this paper intrinsic safety and positive security distance control with  an embedded software solution used in spaces with an explosive potential atmosphere is approached, in comparison to those which use just hardware technology. In sectors with an explosive potential atmosphere, a combined mixture of flammable materials, oxygen, and the presence of an ignition source (mostly caused by electric devices) can cause an explosion. For this reason, in areas with a risk of explosion the electrical equipment is made using an anti- explosive safety for the inputs and outputs called intrinsic safety. Currently this protection is made using a hardware solution which has a lot of drawbacks. To diminish or to get rid of these drawbacks and to ensure the safety of the workers and reduce material loses, the author developed and presented a method of protection for the electrical equipment using intrinsic safety and positive security combined with a software solution to create a safety area consisting in a device with a single button, controlled by a VLSI chip or PLC device and inserted into a metal housing. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A MOBILE CROWDSOURCING SYSTEM FOR FOOTBALL MATCH LIVE VIDEO STREAMING 2019-02-20T12:02:38+01:00 Georgi Iliev Mobile crowdsourcing is a fast-growing emerging approach whereby large groups of mobile users are engaged in a collaborative work on performing a particular task or using its results. This paper presents a concept for the development of a mobile crowdsourcing system with extended capabilities for real-time broadcasting and receiving amateur football match video. It is designed to resolve the problem of possible delays and the overload of a system and to accelerate the process of big video data transmission. The proposed system is based on a service-oriented, three-layer cloud architecture and a specialized mobile video streaming application. The architecture includes a main server, infrastructure of scalable multi-parallel video processing engine and an auxiliary server for synchronizing real-time information, which significantly facilitates the handling of user requests with minimal cost and at a high speed. The concept is realized in the Footlikers platform as a basic client-server, WOWZA streaming engine, deployed on an Amazon EC2 cloud machine and a simple sync-server. The results of the program realization of the developed system prototype are presented, regarding football game video steaming intended for amateur football competitions based and organized in France, Belgium and Luxembourg. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DAMPED OSCILLATIONS OF A TORSIONAL PENDULUM 2019-02-20T12:02:37+01:00 Zharilkassin Iskakov A laboratory work methodic on the experimental study of damping torsion oscillations under educational laboratory conditions was developed in this article. A torsion pendulum, which is usually used for bullet flight speed experimental determination based on angular momentum, mechanical energy conservation laws, and the laws of natural oscillations patterns, was used for this purpose. A torsion pendulum is a rod suspended on a vertically stretched steel wire and capable of performing oscillatory motion in the horizontal plane. Two rectangle shaped bodies are attached at the rod's ends, also two identical cylindrical weights that can be moved, changing the inertia moment of the pendulum, and locked in a chosen position, are arranged on the steel rod. Damping parameter dependencies are studied: the damping coefficient, damping logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, amount of oscillations during relaxation and the mechanical system quality factor against pendulum inertia moment. The least squares method was used in the processing of the experimental results. The results from this experimental study prove theoretical dependencies fidelity. The method used in this study may be recommended for physical practicum at universities when there is not a finished installation for the damping of torsional oscillations. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SIMULATION OF NON-LINEAR CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCE DYNAMIC ON VERTICAL RIGID GYRO ROTOR RESONANT OSCILLATIONS 2019-02-20T12:02:19+01:00 Zharilkassin Iskakov The influence of viscous linear and cubic nonlinear damping of an elastic support on the resonance oscillations of a vertical rigid gyroscopic unbalanced rotor is investigated. Simulation results show that linear and cubic non-linear damping can significantly dampen the main harmonic resonant peak. In non-resonant areas where the speed is higher than the critical speed, the cubic non-linear damping can slightly dampen rotor vibration amplitude in contrast to linear damping. If linear or cubic non-linear damping increase in resonant area significantly kills capacity for absolute motion, then they have little or no influence on the capacity for absolute motion in non-resonant areas. The simulation results can be successfully used to create passive vibration isolators used in rotor machines vibration damping, including gyroscopic ones. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN PLASMA 2019-02-20T12:02:36+01:00 Tomiris Ismagambetova Maratbek Gabdullin Tlekkabul Ramazanov This paper considers hydrogen, non-ideal plasma. The structural properties of such plasma were investigated. To study properties of plasma, effective potentials describing the interaction between particles were used. These potentials take into account various effects: screening and quantum-mechanical (diffraction and symmetry). The Pauli exclusion principle prohibits the simultaneous presence of two identical particles with a half-integer spin (in this case, electrons) in the same state. Pair correlation functions were calculated in hyper-netted chain approximation for the integral equation of the Ornstein-Zernike on the basis of the interaction potentials. The symmetry effect is more pronounced at short distances and for higher values of density. The antiparallel direction of the electron spins increases the probability of finding electrons at distance R from each other, the parallel direction decreases this probability due to the prohibition of the presence of two electrons with the same spins in the same state. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RESTORATION OF A DEGRADED BOG HYDROLOGICAL REGIME USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELING 2019-02-20T12:02:35+01:00 Oskars Java In scope of biodiversity and sustainable ecosystem development the restoration of the bog ecosystem is important, because by reducing the drainage effect on the bog, the negative impact on adjacent intact or relatively intact raised bogs and other wetland hydrological regimes is lowered. To restore a degraded bog hydrological regime, it is necessary to fill up the drainage ditches and cut out part of the forest stand. While researching scientific literature the author has obtained no evidence that there is a system dynamics model developed in order to simulate the tree cutting intensity in a degraded bog after filling up the drainage ditches with the aim to speed up the restoration of hydrological regimes, thus this approach is an innovative way of restoring the hydrological regime of degraded bogs. In previous studies the author concluded that the STELLA® system dynamics model is an appropriate tool to model the hydrological regime of bog. As a result of this research there is a STELLA® system dynamics model developed which through mathematical relationships helps to better understand the bog water cycle and to determine the consequences of any intervention on the bog ecosystem, primarily the effect of tree cutting. While running this STELLA<strong>®</strong> system dynamics model by changing the leaf area index,<strong> </strong>changes in the peat layer moisture level can be observed, which allows to predict the tree cutting intensity in order to reach the desired peat layer moisture level.<strong> </strong>By changing input data, this STELLA® system dynamics model could be used in other restoration projects of degraded raised bogs. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NANOTECHNOLOGY IN OPTICS 2019-02-20T12:02:34+01:00 Natalia Kamanina It is well known that the optical materials are unique and perspective. Optical materials and the devices based on them are operated in the broad spectral range: In the UV spectral range (where the wavelength l is approximately placed in the range of ~ 0.1 - 0.4 microns), in the VIS spectral range (l ~ 0.5 - 0.75 microns), and in the IR spectral range (l is larger than the 0.75-1 microns). These materials can be considered to resolve the different complicated tasks. To study optical materials different techniques and methods should be scrupulously used. Among different applied methods namely the laser oriented technique and nanostructuration approach have some unique features. It can be considered as the effective dominant approach in order to reveal the change of all basic physical-chemical characteristics of the materials. Our own steps in this direction have partially been recently shown too. In the current paper, advantages of the modification of optical material surfaces via a nanotechnology approach will be shown. The surface relief change provokes the spectral, mechanical and wetting phenomena changes. A CO<sub>2</sub>-laser is applied to modify the optical materials surfaces under the condition when the carbon nanotubes are deposited in vertical position at the materials surfaces. This process permits to organize covalent bonding between the carbon atoms and the model matrix ones. An emphasis will be given on the surface modifications of the materials, such as: LiF, CaF<sub>2</sub>, KBr, BaF<sub>2</sub>, Sc, some polymer surface, etc. Mechanisms responsible for the spectral characteristics change, mechanical hardness as well as the increase of the wetting angle will be discussed. The area of the application of the materials studied can be increased. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF MELTING SNOW – A CASE STUDY OF THE SHUMEN REGION, BULGARIA 2019-02-20T12:02:34+01:00 Teodora Koynova Asya Dragoeva Vanya Koleva <p>The presence of atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened in Bulgaria. However, studies on the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of air contaminants are scarce. Snow collects pollutants from the air. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of melted snow samples from Shumen region (Bulgaria) on mitotic cells using the <em>A. cepa</em> test.</p><p>Samples were taken from three open spaces: 1) the city of Shumen, 2) a meadow on the Shumen plateau and 3) agricultural land located about 9.5 km northeast of the town of Shumen.</p><p>The samples from the Shumen city and Shumen plateau indicated the presence of water soluble cytotoxic compounds. The lack of cytotoxicity in the sample from the agricultural land was established. This proves an anthropogenic origin of cytotoxic pollutions at the other two places. These results could serve as warning signals for health preventive programs regarding air quality in Shumen and the Nature Park Shumen plateau during the winter.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IDENTIFICATION OF THE HONEYBEE SUBSPECIES FROM SOME ROMANIAN COUNTIES USING A SEMIAUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING WINGS 2019-02-20T12:02:33+01:00 Elena Buescu Maria Rodica Gurau Doina Danes Morphometric analysis of honeybee wings can be used to discriminate between honeybee subspecies. The classic morphometric methods used to identify honeybee subspecies are time consuming while geometric morphometric analysis are proven to be more efficient and rapid for the identification of honeybee subspecies.  Even if the geometric morphometric analysis involves several steps such as: obtaining the image of the honeybee wing,  processing the wings image (settlement of the 19 points), classification and validation, in terms of consumed time,it  takes less than classic morphometric methodes and it is easier to apply. The aim of this study was to identify honeybee subspecies from the Romanian South-Eastern area, using the geometric morphometric method. To accomplish this, the semiautomated French system ApiClass was used. This system  allows us to identify the honeybee subspecies based on the wing's image of the Apis mellifera honeybee worker. The program is using the recent approaches of geometric morphometry and is analyzing the wing considering 19 points  corresponding to the intersections of the main veins of the bee forewings. These coordinates are processed by the system before being analyzed  after which the system returns the probability of  the analyzed honeybee belonging to one of the honeybee subspecies from its reference system. The system has more than 5000 honeybee wing references  off the main lines and honeybee subspecies.  Using this system we analyzed  samples from the counties of Braila, Buzau, Galati and Ilfov. Each sample was composed from wings of  20 honeybees. Most of the analyzed samples were identified as hybrids without being possible  to specify the type or the level of the hybridization: only three samples were identified as being Apis mellifera carnica presenting a homology degree over 90%. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PM10 EXCEEDANCE IN BULGARIA 2019-02-20T12:02:32+01:00 Iliyana Naydenova Tsvetelina Petrova Rositsa Velichkova Iskra Simova Despite the effort done by member states during the last decade, failure in the implementation of the Ambient Air Quality Directive is being continuously registered in many European cities for different air pollutants. One of the biggest concerns in Bulgaria is the exceeded PM10 concentration in the ambient air, measured in all six air quality zones during the winter period. This has induced numerous activities (at the national and European level) focused on the following issues: identification of the level of exceedance of the air quality norms for PM10; the general emission sources; the most prominent omissions and discrepancies in the legislative framework; the level of implementation of the prescribed measures and many others. However, the PM10 exceedance is still of a significant concern in at least 28 municipalities in Bulgaria. Thus, the present work introduces a brief report on the current state of the problem in the country. For that purpose, benchmarking analyses was applied for obtaining the range of discrepancies and the tendencies of the PM10 concentrations, monitored in the ambient air at the affected municipalities. The investigation was carried out using merely officially reported and freely accessible data and covered a relatively short period of time of six years. The latest national and European environmental reports present data confirming the primary role of residential heating and transport during the winter period as well as at the occurrence of particular atmospheric conditions. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTORS AND EXAMINING THE PROBABILITY OF INTRUDER DETECTION 2019-02-20T12:02:31+01:00 Michal Peňaška Milan Kutaj The article describes intruder alarm systems, experimental testing of selected components of these systems, and examining the probability of intruder detection in a protected area. Component parameters are specified in the producer technical documentation (datasheets, service manuals) and they have to comply with European technical standards. Specifically, the article focuses on passive infrared motion detectors, which are among the most used components of intruder alarm systems. Experiments were carried out under the conditions specified in the European technical standards and also beyond these conditions. The experiments were performed in controlled measuring and testing laboratories. The results of the experiments can be used as a basis for improving the European technical standards, a proposal for their modification, and also for the evaluation of intruder alarm systems. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SELECTED CONTAMINANTS IN FISH AND MUSSELS FROM THE BULGARIAN BLACK SEA 2019-02-20T12:02:30+01:00 Zlatina Peteva Stanislava Georgieva Bernd Krock Mona Stancheva The presence of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and marine biotoxins in the marine environment is important for the evaluation of a potential risk to human health. The purpose of the present study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDT and its metabolites) in three fish species and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and marine biotoxins in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria. Concentration of six Indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its metabolites were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The mean levels of I-PCBs ranged between 6.78 ng/g ww and 16.33 ng/g ww (garfish and bluefish respectively). The sum of I-PCBs in all seafood studied did not exceed the EU maximum level. Hydrophilic marine biotoxins determination was performed by HPLC with postchromatographic oxidation. Lipophilic marine toxins were determined on liquid chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry. The analyzed marine biotoxins were under the limit of detection. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## USE PROPERTIES OF DISTRIBUTIONS TO MODEL THE SYSTEMS WITH SEVERE NONLINEARITIES 2019-02-20T12:02:30+01:00 Emil Pop Gabriel Ilcea Sergiu Buzdugan Many times, in science and technology, we need to model and simulate some phenomena and with this we encounter lots of difficulties caused by the presence of certain nonlinear elements, which cannot be linearly approximated, called severe nonlinearities. This kind of nonlinearities contains discontinuities and non-derivable points. In other words, many nonlinearities are defined by some relations and not by the functions. This situation appears most frequently in the study of the systems when we have a mathematical model to simulate them. A solution proposed in this paper is to use a distributions theory that extends the class of functions. In order to refer to the class of nonlinear systems for which the theory of distributions will be applied, a brief presentation of nonlinear systems versus linear systems will be made. In the following paper the distribution concept, the elementary distributions were defined and several distributions and properties were illustrated by a simulation. Using properties of distributions, complex nonlinear problems, like control systems design, can be treated much easy. In this paper we can see models and simulations results for several discrete control applications used in control engineering and power electronics. The distributions are suitable for software implementation and by this offers very good support for embedded systems with software-oriented solution. Many distributions models were known for a long time, but were not used in applications. In this paper the distributions are modeled, simulated and many applications which can be used as guides in the future, was developed. As a conclusion, the distribution properties are very suitable for the development of nonlinear mathematical models especially for ones with severe nonlinearities, and through this to design controllers or other nonlinear devices. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE USAGE OF BORON/ BORON COMPOUNDS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND ITS SITUATION IN TURKEY 2019-02-20T12:02:29+01:00 Nihal Sokmen Banu Yeşim Buyukakinci <p>Commonly found in the earth’s crust, boron happens to be the 51st element of the periodic table and is not found in its elemental state in nature. It is known that there are about 230 different boron minerals in nature. Turkey has the largest boron reserves in the world. In addition to this, Turkey’s boron minerals have the highest quality and production conditions that are more economical than other boron producing countries. For this reason, boron has great importance for Turkey and there is a significant demand for new areas of usage so that Turkey would be able to contribute to the national economy with these resources. The institute of BOREN (National Boron Research Institute) was established for this purpose in Turkey. This institute funds related projects for the extension of boron usage areas. One of the open sectors for innovation is textile technology.</p>This study investigates the history of boron and its current situation in Turkey as well as the studies conducted regarding boron and its compounds especially in the textile field. Taking the available boron reserves in Turkey into consideration, the need for more research and development studies on boron as an environment-friendly element is clear for the textile industry. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CONCEPTS FOR DISTRIBUTED INPUT INDEPENDENT ARCHITECTURE FOR SERIOUS GAMES 2019-02-20T12:02:28+01:00 Stefan Stavrev Todorka Terzieva Angel Golev Serious games (SG) allow us to learn even when we are relaxing. These games are called “serious” because they allow us to be trained at domain-specific knowledge level. That is the main reason SG are gathering an even increasing research interest in recent years. In contrast with traditional, purely entertainment games, SGs architectures and design principles are under active investigation by researchers. Recent work in that field attempts to define how SG are structured, built, used and extended. However, there is still a lot of debate which design techniques are adequate or which techniques can be borrowed from other fields – such as computer science or mainstream entertainment games. The main objective of our research is three-fold: investigate and analyze current architectural approaches; summarize the top characteristics of a modern serious game; and propose an architecture that is coherent with current approaches. Following these principles, we determine that the prevailing views in the SGs area are that they should be distributed and modular, service-based and easily extendible. Building on top of that, we come up with a novel concept for creating serous games that are independent of their input devices and propose two ways that independence can be achieved. We briefly discuss the possible integration of 3-rd party services by using message queue brokers in a publish / subscribe manner. Finally, we summarize and propose different methods for extending our proposed approach. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INVESTIGATING DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION FACTORS FOR OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT 2019-02-20T12:02:27+01:00 Emmanuel Kweinor Tetteh Sudesh Rathilal The global demand for petrochemical and petroleum industry products unavoidably generates large volumes of oil refinery wastewater (ORW). The complete treatment, reclamation and disposal of the ORW to an acceptable environmental limit is currently a challenge to most of the petroleum industries. With the current development in conventional treatment methods viz. coagulation, dissolved air flotation (DAF), and biological and membrane separation processes. DAF, which is well-established separation process, effectively employs microbubbles as a carrier phase for separation. Although, DAF is frequently used in combined water and wastewater treatment plants, its fundamental characteristics and operational parameters have not yet been fully investigated for the treatment of ORW. In this study, the correlation and effects of the parameters understudy (coagulant dosage, air saturator pressure, air-water ratio and rising rate) on chemical oxygen demand, soap oil and grease, turbidity and total suspended solids removal from ORW were examined experimentally using a laboratory DAF system. The results showed that increasing the saturator working pressure and the rising rate had less effect on the system, than increasing the air-water ratio. The agglomeration of the oil droplets was found to depend solely on the polyaluminum sulphate (PAS) dosage to destabilize the oil droplets. The DAF treatability performance showed over 80% removal of the contaminants at optimum conditions of pH of 5, PAS dosage of 10 mg/L, rising rate of 15 minutes, air saturator pressure of 300-500 kPa, and air-water ratio of 5-15%. The PAS dosage was found to be the most significant factor. Therefore, a moderate increase of the PAS dosage under these optimum conditions will increase the DAF efficiency in the treatment of ORW. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MICROPROPAGATION OF CYMBIDIUM SPP. BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS TECHNIQUE 2019-02-20T12:02:26+01:00 Minh Van Tran <em>Cymbidium</em> spp. was regularly produced through micropropagation by protocorm like bodies (PLBs) and multiple shoots; micropropagation takes a lot of labor, and has high cost of seedlings, energy and material. The purpose of this paper was to study the new technique of using in vitro embryogenesis culturing for microprogation to resolve the above difficulties. The method was to use PLBs as planting materials to produce somatic callus cell and embryos. Results were followed as: PLBs were cut into slices and placed on the medium for callus initiated and used as materials for embryo formation study. A fresh weight of callus were used for the experiment of about 100 mg. The medium for the initiation of embryonic callus was composed of: MS + BA (0.1 mg/l) + peptone (1 g/l) + activated charcoal (1 g/l) supplemented with NAA (1mg/l) or 2.4D (1 mg/l) and was proliferated on the medium MS + pepton (1 g/l) + activated charcoal (1 g/l) supplemented with NAA (1 mg/l) or 2.4D (1 mg/l). Somatic cell suspensions were initiated and proliferated on the medium consisting of MS + peptone (1 g/l) + activated charcoal (1 g/l) supplemented with NAA (1 mg/l) + BA (0.1 mg/l). Somatic cell suspensions were differentiated to embryonic cell suspensions on the medium MS + peptone (1 g/l) + activated charcoal (1 g/l) supplemented with BA (1 mg/l). Embryonic cell suspensions were plating and regeneration on the medium MS + peptone (1 g/l) + activated charcoal (1 g/l) supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) + BA (1 mg/l). Micropropagation of <em>Cymbidium</em> spp. via embryogenesis technique was set up to produce 3,800 plantlets per one liter of somatic embryogenesis suspension. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MICROPROPAGATION OF PHALAENOPSIS SPP. BY SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS TECHNIQUE 2019-02-20T12:02:25+01:00 Minh Van Tran <em>Phalaenopsis </em>spp. was regularly produced through micropropagation by protocorm like bodies (PLBs); micropropagation takes a lot of labor, and has high cost of seedlings, energy and material. The purpose of this paper was to study the new technique of using in vitro embryogenesis culturing for microprogation. The method involved using protocorm like bodies as planting materials. PLBs were cut into slices and placed on the medium for callus initiation. The callus was initiated on the medium MS + BA (0.1 mg/l) supplemented with NAA (1 mg/l) or 2,4D (1 mg/l) and was proliferated on the medium MS + BA (0.1 mg/l) supplemented with NAA (1 mg/l). Somatic cell suspensions were initiated and proliferated on the medium MS + BA (0.1 mg/l) supplemented with NAA (0.5, 1 mg/l). Somatic cell suspensions were differentiated to embryonic cell suspensions on the MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) + BA (0.5 mg/l). Embryonic cell suspensions were plated and regenerated on the medium: 1/2MS supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) + BA (0.5 mg/l). Micropropagation of <em>Phalaenopsis</em> sp. via the embryogenesis technique was set up to produce 5,800 plantlets per one liter of somatic embryogenesis suspension. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF HYDROLYTIC STABILITY OF A PYRROLE-BASED HYDRAZIDE AND ITS HYDRAZONE 2019-02-20T12:02:24+01:00 Diana Tzankova Lily Peikova Maya Georgieva A validated UV/VIS method for preliminary determination<strong> </strong>of the chemical stability and stability in close to physiological conditions of a model pyrrole hydrazide and its corresponding derivative, bearing susceptible to hydrolysis hydrazone group was developed. The evaluated substances were subjected to the influence of a variety of pH medias, representing the main physiological values of 37°C and corresponding pH values in the stomach (pH 2.0), blood (pH 7.4) and small intestine (pH 9.0). The chemical stability at strong alkali media of pH 13.0 was also evaluated. The hydrazide was found to be stable at all investigated conditions. The tested hydrazone was determined to be stable at pH of 7.4 and a temperature of 37°C and susceptible to hydrolysis at strong acidic (pH 2.0) and moderate alkali (pH 9.0) media at the same temperature. In addition, a decrease in the absorption at strong alkali media (pH 13.0) was observed, showing the compounds instability under these conditions. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL DISASTERS IN BULGARIA BASED ON THEIR CLASSIFICATION 2019-02-20T12:02:23+01:00 Iskra Simova Tsvetelina Petrova Rositsa Velichkova Detelin Ganchev Markov Milka Uzunova Martin Pushkarov Disasters caused by natural phenomena or human activities often occur in the Republic of Bulgaria. Their social and economic consequences can have a significant adverse effect on the development of the country and its economic growth, therefore disaster risk reduction is very important for sustainable development.<strong> </strong>This paper presents an overview of the main natural and man-made hazards in Bulgaria. A descriptive analysis of the critical disasters in Bulgaria for the time periods of 2003-2008 and 2010–2016 is made. The survey is based on the classification of the hazards. Existing statistical data is reviewed and analysed and, as a consequence, recommendations are proposed. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HALOTHANE (2-BROMO-1,1,1-TRIFLUORO-2-CHLOROETHANE) AS AN EXAMPLE IN THE DISCIPLINE “FORENSIC CHEMISTRY” FOR UKRAINIAN STUDENTS OF PHARMACY 2019-02-20T12:02:22+01:00 Elena Welchinska The quantity of pharmaceutical preparations, which are used in medicine and different areas of the economy increased because of the development of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. These substances can caise poisonings in certain situations. The sources of poisonings are: sewage of industrial enterprises; pesticides (chemical poisons) for fighting agricultural pests; soil; vegetables and fruits;  chemical substances for fights against rodents and insects. The use of chemical substances in the economy increases the quantity of poisons as objects of forensic toxicological analysis. “Forensic chemistry” — is a science which studies methods for the isolation, purification, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of toxic and poisonous substances and their metabolites in objects of various origins:  animal and plant biological materials, industrial waste, emissions of waste water, the air of industrial enterprises, soil and agricultural crops, etc. The aim of this work is to study the importance of chemicals, namely fluorine-containing organic compounds, which are strong toxic substances, during the study of "Forensic Chemistry" throughout the academic period at the Pharmaceutical Faculty in Ukraine. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPUTER PREDICTION AND SYNTHESIS OF NEW OXAZOLES BASED ON AN 8-THIOSUBSTITUTED 1,3,7-TRIMETHYLXANTHINE SKELETON 2019-02-20T12:02:21+01:00 Alexander Zlatkov Javor Mitkov Maya Georgieva The synthesis of new oxazole derivatives was carried out under Davidson synthesis conditions from O-acylacyloins with an 8-thiosubstituted 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine skeleton and ammonium acetate in a 1:10 ratio in glacial acetic acid media. The starting O-acylacyloins were obtained as products from the interaction of the sodium salt of 2-(1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purin-8-ylthio)acetic acid and a-haloketones. The structures of the new compounds were proven by microanalyses and spectral data. The PASS online web application was used to predict the biological activity spectra of the obtained derivatives and to determine the most promising biological effects for further experimental testing. Thus, it has been shown that the synthesized compounds are a promising class for the creation of substances with a wide range of biological activity. The substrate/metabolite specificity of the tested compounds was also predicted using SMP web-service. The studied compounds were considered to perform most probably with CYP2 substrate activity. 2018-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##