• Agim Kasaj European University of Tirana
Keywords: e-government, technology adoption, notarial system, Albania, mandatory use.


E-Government has high priority for governments worldwide, with much effort and money being invested into government digital initiatives. For such efforts to be worthy, a high rate of adoption of e-government is needed. Technology adoption is one of the most mature areas in information technology (IT) research and many adoption models have been developed for this purpose. Most studies in this field have been focused on voluntary use of systems and mainly from a business context, with minor emphasize on an e-government. A major distinction between technologies of e-government and other online technologies, is that the use of certain e-government technologies is mandatory, rather than voluntary. This paper provides a short introduction of e-government, followed by a review of the most well-known information technology (IT) adoption models at the individual level. Using previous research results, the study will identify the determinant constructs and their relationship for adoption of the digital notarial system of Albania. Finally, the paper proposes a theoretical framework for private professional adoption of mandatory e-government information systems.


Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action Control (pp. 11–39). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 888–918.

Brown, S. A., Massey, A. P., Montoya-Weiss, M. M., & Burkman, J. R. (2002). Do I really have to? User acceptance of mandated technology. European Journal of Information Systems, 11(4).

Brown, S. A., Venkatesh, V., & Goyal, S. (2012). Expectation Confirmation in Technology Use. Information Systems Research, 23(2), 474–487.

Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995a). Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Training for Computer Skills. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 118–143.

Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995b). Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 189–211.

Davis, F., Bagozzi, R., & Warshaw, P. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology, 13(3), 319–340.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Use Computers in the Workplace1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111–1132.

DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information systems success: The quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), 60–95.

Delone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a ten-year update. Journal of Management Information Systems / Spring, 19(4), 9–30.

Deloitte Research, Deloitte & Touche, & Deloitte Consulting (2000). At the dawn of e-Government: the citizen as customer. Deloitte Consulting, New York.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior, An Introduction to Theory and Research.

Goodhue, D. L., & Thompson, R. L. (1995). Task-Technology Fit and Individual Performance. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 213.

Gupta, B., Dasgupta, S., & Gupta, A. (2008). Adoption of ICT in a government organization in a developing country: An empirical study. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(2), 140–154.

Hartwick, J., & Barki, H. (1994). Explaining the Role of User Participation in Information System Use. Management Science, 40(4), 440–465.

Malavet, P. A. (1995). Counsel for the Situation: The Latin Notary, a Historical and Comparative Model. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 19(3), 389–490.

Min, T., & Park, C. (2008). Mobile technology usage and B2B market performance under mandatory adoption. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(7), 833–840.

Moore, G. C., & Benbasat, I. (1991). Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Information Systems Research, 2(3), 192–222.

O’Connor, R. C., & Armitage, C. J. (2003). Theory of planned behaviour and parasuicide: An exploratory study. Current Psychology, 22(3), 196–205.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS. Elements of Diffusion (4th ed.). THE FREE PRESS.

Sheppard, B. H., Hartwick, J., & Warshaw, P. R. (1988). The Theory of Reasoned Action: A Meta-Analysis of Past Research with Recommendations for Modifications and Future Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 325–343.

Susanto, T. D., & Goodwin, R. (2013). User acceptance of SMS-based e-government services: Differences between adopters and non-adopters. Government Information Quarterly, 30(4), 486–497.

Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding information technology usage: A test of competing models. Information Systems Research.

Thompson, R. L., Higgins, C. A., & Howell, J. M. (1991). Personal Computing: Toward a Conceptual Model of Utilization. MIS Quarterly, 15(1), 125–143.

Tornatzky, L. G., & Fleischer, M. (1990). The processes of technological innovation. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 16(1), 45–46.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affair. (2014). United Nations E-Government Survey 2014: E-Government for the Future We Want.

Venkatesh, V., & Bala, H. (2008). Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decision Sciences, 39(2), 273–315.

Venkatesh, V., Chan, F. K. Y., & Thong, J. Y. L. (2012). Designing e-government services: Key service attributes and citizens’ preference structures. Journal of Operations Management, 30(1-2), 116–133.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186–204.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Hall, M., Davis, G. B., Davis, F. D., & Walton, S. M. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and user of information technology: Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 157–178.

Warkentin, M., Gefen, D., Pavlou, P. a., & Rose, G. M. (2002). Encouraging Citizen Adoption of e-Government by Building Trust. Electronic Markets, 12(3), 157–162.