ROMANIA VERSUS BULGARIA: A SHORT ANALYSIS OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SEASIDE TOURISM
AbstractThis research compares tourism competitiveness of two neighboring countries, Romania and Bulgaria, which have many similarities economically as well as from a geopolitical and historical perspective. Despite these similarities, immediately after the 1990s, which marked the fall of the communist regime, the tourism phenomenon in the two countries had divergent evolutions. As the tourism industry in Bulgaria, especially its seaside tourism, underwent unprecedented development, the tourism activity in Romania systematically lost its competitiveness. The factors affecting the appearance and increase of such a difference are of interest to the Romanian seaside tourism. To generate the answer to this problem, we perform a series of comparative analyses with data from the World Economic Forum, in terms of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report (2011-2015), `the National Authority for Tourism of Romania, and the National Institute of Statistics from Romania and Bulgaria. We identified a series of constitutive elements relating to the success of the Bulgarian seaside tourism and a sequence of deficiencies in the strategic and organizational maneuvers of the tourism activity at the Romanian seaside.
Bonn, M. A., Joseph, S. M., & Dai, M. (2005). International versus domestic visitors: An examination of destination image perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 294-301. Retrieved from http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/43/3/294.short
Boșcoianu, M., Costea, M., & Codreanu, A. (2015). Sovereign investment funds and the globalization of tourism. Discussions on Romania`s case. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 6(1), 85.
Blue Flag (2015). Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.blueflag.org/
Capital.ro (2014, July 11). Most visitors from Bulgarian seaside ar Germans and Romanians . Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.capital.ro/cei-mai-multi-vizitatori-de-pe-litoralul-bulgaresc-sunt-nemti-si-romani.html
Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517706001397
Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism management, 29(4), 624-636. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517707001525
Chon, K. S., & Mayer, K. J. (1995). Destination competitiveness models in tourism and their application to Las Vegas. Journal of Tourism Systems and Quality Management, 1(2), 3.
Croitoru, M. (2011). Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 9(562), 155-172.
Crouch, G. I. (2010). Destination competitiveness: An analysis of determinant attributes. Journal of Travel Research. Retrieved from http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/03/19/0047287510362776.abstract
Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Rao, P. (2000). The price competitiveness of travel and tourism: a comparison of 19 destinations. Tourism Management, 21(1), 9-22. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517799000813
Enright, M. J., & Newton, J. (2005). Determinants of tourism destination competitiveness in Asia Pacific: Comprehensiveness and universality. Journal of travel research, 43(4), 339-350. Retrieved from http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/43/4/339.short
Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcı́a, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), 56-78. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738301000317
Gomezelj, D. O., & Mihalič, T. (2008). Destination competitiveness—Applying different models, the case of Slovenia. Tourism management, 29(2), 294-307. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517707000714
Hassan, S. S. (2000). Determinants of market competitiveness in an environmentally sustainable tourism industry. Journal of Travel Research, 38: 239:245.
Hong, W. C. (2008). Competitiveness in the tourism sector. A comprehensive approach from economic and management points. Physica-Verlag (a Springer company). Retrieved from https://books.google.ro/books?id=9BVFG8FaMncC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ro#v=onepage&q&f=false
Hsu, C. H. C, Wolfe, K., & Kang, S. K. (2004). Image assessment for a destination with limited comparative advantages. Tourism Management, 25: 121-126.
Hu, Y. Z, & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1993). Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach. Journal of Travel Research, 32: 25-34.
Ioncică, M., Petrescu, E. C., & Ioncică, D. (2008). Abordări macro și microeconomice ale competitivității în sectorul serviciilor. Revista de Marketing Online, 2 (1), 76.
Ivanov, S. H., & Webster, C. (2013). Globalisation as a driver of destination competitiveness. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 628-633. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stanislav_Ivanov/publication/259098521_GLOBALISATION_AS_A_DRIVER_OF_DESTINATION_COMPETITIVENESS/links/5430e3f60cf29bbc12772604.pdf
Lukanova, G. (2010). Evaluation of hotel service performance process in Bulgaria. UTMS Journal of Economics, Retrieved from http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=search&page=2&template=&query=bulgaria%20tourism¤tYear=2013&uiLanguage=en
Mazanec, J. A., Wöber, K., & Zins, A. H. (2007). Tourism destination competitiveness: from definition to explanation? Journal of Travel Research,46(1), 86-95. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Josef_Mazanec/publication/249701318_Tourism_Destination_Competitiveness_From_Definition_to_Explanation/links/02e7e53c21c6f75f91000000.pdf
Murphy, P., Pritchard, M. P., & Smith, B. (2000). The destination product and its impact on traveller perceptions. Tourism management, 21(1), 43-52. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517799000801
National Authority for Tourism, Romania (2015).Turism.gov.ro. Retrieved 6 november, 2015, from http://turism.gov.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/StructuriCazareClasificate250420161-1.xls
National Institute of Statistics, Bulgaria (2015). Infostat.nsi.bg. Retrieved 5 November, 2015, from https://infostat.nsi.bg/infostat/pages/reports/query.jsf?x_2=203
National Institute of Statistics, Romania (2015). Insse.ro. Retrieved 5 November, 2015, from http://statistici.insse.ro/shop/index.jsp?page=tempo3&lang=ro&ind=TUR104BNavickas, V., & Malakauskaite, A. (2015). The possibilities for the identification and evaluation of tourism sector competitiveness factors. Engineering Economics, 61(1). Retrieved from http://eis.ktu.lt/index.php/EE/article/viewFile/11581/6264
Poon, A. (1993). Tourism, technology and competitive strategies. Cab International Publication.
Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2012). Antecedents of tourists’ loyalty to Mauritius The role and influence of destination image, place attachment, personal involvement, and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), 342-356. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Girish_Prayag/publication/258161250_Antecedents_of_Tourists_Loyalty_to_Mauritius_The_Role_and_Influence_of_Destination_Image_Place_Attachment_Personal_Involvement_and_Satisfaction/links/55074fc00cf26ff55f7cf889.pdf
Qu, H., Kim, L. H., & Im, H. H. (2011). A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image. Tourism Management, 32(3), 465-476. Retrieved from http://media.bizwebmedia.net/sites/146527/upload/documents/2-destination-_image_2.pdf
Ritchie, J. B., & Crouch, G. I. (1993). Competitiveness in international tourism: A framework for understanding and analysis. World Tourism Education and Research Centre, University of Calgary.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report (2015). Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/TT15/WEF_Global_Travel&Tourism_Report_2015.pdf
Tufan, M. (2015, June 25). Wizz Air a mai bifat un aeroport în România: din iunie a intrat cu zboruri pe ruta Constanţa - Londra, Ziarul Financiar [Wizz Air has checked an airport in Romania : in June came flying Constanta - London route, Ziarul Financiar]. Retrieved from http://www.zf.ro/companii/wizz-air-a-mai-bifat-un-aeroport-in-romania-din-iunie-a-intrat-cu-zboruri-pe-ruta-constanta-londra-14502802
Zhang, H., Gu, C. L., Gu, L. W., & Zhang, Y. (2011). The evaluation of tourism destination competitiveness by TOPSIS & information entropy–A case in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Tourism Management, 32(2), 443-451. Retrieved from https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~Yanz/YanZhang_CV2011.pdf
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz