TURKEY BETWEEN SECULARIZATION AND PIETISM
AbstractIn Turkey, the secularization process has continued for over two hundred years without a successful conclusion. While part of the administrative group demands secularization, the other rigorously objects to this process. The main problem examined by this study is the conflict between these two groups. The core factors against secularization and the philosophical, juridical, and religious reasons influencing the process are discussed. The study focuses on past examples to analyze the secularization process. The study examines the main patterns in the process, starting with reflections on Nizam-1 Alem (Order of Universe), the philosophy of the foundation of Ottoman Empire, and the invariance principle. It continues with conclusions of the imperial edict of Gulhane (Tanzimat Fermani); then discussions on differences of civilization and culture in Turkey; and finally Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s beliefs on unique civilization and secularization. As a result, this paper presents the main problems of secularization in today’s Turkey.
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