ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
Due to the economic changes and fast progress in health technologies countries face the challenge of rapidly growing health expenditures. Drug policies focus on identification of the most problematic areas for implementation of cost-effective measures. For this purpose, they need to be provided with accurate analyses of health expenditures and drug utilization.
Primary aim of this study was to analyze health expenditures of Slovak Republic in regards to factors, which are considered to have the largest influence on provision of health care. Secondarily we focused on providing a brief drug utilization analysis. Our study confirmed that since 2000 Slovakia invests a larger share of GDP in health care, while in 2013 overall health expenditure amounted 5.6 million EUR (7.6% of GDP). Despite recent growth (233.6 % since 2000), Slovakia remains under OECD average in regards to health expenditures per capita (PPP, USD). However, it is on the 2nd place among V4 countries. Patients’ share of the overall health expenditures is increasing 12.8 times faster than public reimbursement. Up to 1.5 million EUR was spent on pharmaceuticals in 2013. The most utilized group of drugs in terms of DIDs and sales were cardiovascular drugs.
Bloom, D. E., & Canning, D. (2007). Commentary: The Preston Curve 30 years on: still sparking fires. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(3), 498-499. DOI:10.1093/ije/dym079
Deaton, A. (2003). Health, inequality, and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(1), 113-158. DOI:10.1257/002205103321544710
European Union, & OECD. (2012). Eurostat-OECD Methodological Manual on Purchasing Power Parities. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Filko, M., Mach, J., & Zajíček, M. (2012). Analysis of the effectiveness of Slovak health service]. Retrieved from http://www.finance.gov.sk/Default.aspx?CatID=8789
Foltán, V. (2010). Social pharmacy and health service. Martin: Osveta, spol. s r. o.
Kennedy, J., & Morgan, S. (2009). Cost-Related Prescription Nonadherence in the United States and Canada: A System-Level Comparison Using the 2007 International Health Policy Survey in Seven Countries. Clinical Therapeutics, 31(1), 213-219. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.01.006
Morrison, V. L., Holmes, E. A. F., Parveen, S., Plumpton, C. O., Clyne, W., De Geest, S., Hughes, D. A. (2015). Predictors of Self-Reported Adherence to Antihypertensive Medicines: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Survey. Value in Health, 18(2), 206-216. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2014.12.013
OECD (2015). Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators (pp. 216).
OECD (2016a). Health spending (indicator). DOI:10.1787/8643de7e-en.
OECD (2016b). Life expectancy at birth (indicator) [data set]. DOI:10.1787/27e0fc9d-en
Schumock, G. T., Li, E. C., Suda, K. J., Wiest, M. D., Stubbings, J., Matusiak, L. M., Vermeulen, L. C. (2015). National trends in prescription drug expenditures and projections for 2015. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 72(9), 717-736. DOI:10.2146/ajhp140849
Truter, I. (2008). A Review of Drug Utilization Studies and Methodologies. Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(2), 91-103.
WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (2014). Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment 2014 (17th ed).
World Health Organization. (2003). Introduction to Drug Utilization Research. Oslo, Norway.
Zákon č. 362/2011 Z.z. o liekoch a zdravotníckych pomôckach [Act No. 362/2011 Coll. on drugs and medical devices] (2011), the National Council of the Slovak Republic.
Zweifel, P., & Wilard, G. M. (2000). Moral hazard and consumer incentives in health care. In J. C. ANTHONY & P. N. JOSEPH (Eds.), Handbook of health care economics (Vol. 1A, pp. 409-459). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science BV.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
email@example.com, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz