• Jolanta Wartini-Twardowska Faculty of Finance and Insurance, University of Economics Katowice
  • Zbigniew Twardowski Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Silesian Higher School of Economics, Katowice
Keywords: business model, merger & acquisition, sector of management information systems


This paper presents the methodology of assessing opportunities and threats related to the combining of heterogeneous business models in complex organizations (enterprise groups) from the point of view of added value. The main objective was to develop a methodology for assessing the risk of including a company with
a specific business model within a complex organization. The authors carried out an in-depth analysis of mutual influences for fifteen typical business models. Guided by their original approach to classifying business models in the sector for management information systems, the authors used the cross-impact method to rank models in the value chain of this sector. The operational processes of the business models were also identified. The proposed methodology allows for a relatively accurate assessment of the impact of particular operational processes of one model upon the strategic objectives of another. The study established a set of data enabling the determination of the potential risks of combining two distinct sector models, the ‘integrator’ and the ‘added value reseller’, as an enterprise group. The methodology presented in this paper could be used to develop
a computer system supporting strategic decisions regarding the allocation of resources in complex organizations.


APQC (2015, October). Process Classification Framework (PCF) – Cross-Industry - PDF Version 6.1.1. Retrieved March 31, 2016, from

Birkinshaw, J., & Ansari, S. (2015). Understanding Management Models. Going Beyond "What" and "Why" to "How" Work Gets Done in Organizations. In Foss, J.N., & Saebi, T. (2015). Business Model Innovation. The organizational Dimension. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 85-103.

Bouman, H., Faber, E., Haaker, T., & de Reuver M. (2008). Conceptualizing the STOF Model. In Bouwman, H., de Vos, M., & Haaker, T. (2008). Mobile Service Innovation and Business Models. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 31-70.

Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Ricart, J. E. (2010). From Strategy to Business Models and onto Tactics. Long Range Planning, 43, 195-215. DOI:10.1016/j.lrp.2010.01.004

Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Zhu, F. (2013). Business model innovation and competitive Imitation: the case of sponsor-based business models. Strategic Management Journal, 34(4), 464-482. DOI:10.1002/smj.2022

Cavalcante, S. A., Kesting, P., & Ulhøi, A. (2011). Business model dynamics and innovation: (re)establishing the missing linkages. Management Decision, 49 (8), 1327-1342. DOI: 10.1108/00251741111163142

Central Statistical Office. (2015). Enterprise groups in Poland in 2014. 1-61. Retrieved March, 31, 2016, from,14,7.html

Central Statistical Office. (2016a). Business Tendency Survey in Industry, Trade and Services in March 2016. Retrieved March, 31, 2016, from,3,40.html

Central Statistical Office. (2016b). Business Tendency Survey in Services - current database - monthly data. Retrieved March, 31, 2016, from,4,8.html

Chatterjee, S., & Brueller, N. N. (2015). A new M&A methodology: five lessons in anticipating post-merger resource interactions and challenges. Strategy & Leadership, 43 (4), 26-37. DOI: 10.1108/SL-04-2015-0031

Chesbrough, H. (2010). Business model innovation: Opportunities and barriers. Long Range Planning, 43, 354-363. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.010

Chesbrough, H., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11 (3), 529-555.

Dottore, F. A. (1977, October 31). Data base provides business model. Computerworld, S/2-S/12.

Holloway, S. S, & Sebastiao, H. J. (2010). The role of business model innovation in the emergence of markets: A missing dimension of entrepreneurial strategy. Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, 6(4), 86-101.

Konczal, E. (1975). Models are for managers, not mathematicians. Journal of Systems Management, 26 (1), 212.

Markides, C. C. (2008). Game-changing strategies. How to create new market space in established industries by breaking the rules. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Morris, M., Schindehutte M., Richardson, J., & Allen, J. (2006). Is the business model a useful strategic concept? Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 17 (1), 27-50.

Normann, R., & Ramirez, R. (1993, July-August). From Value Chain to Value Constellation: Designing lnteractive Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 65-77.

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2012). Tworzenie modeli biznesowych. Podręcznik wizjonera. Gliwice: Helion. (Original work published 2010).

Sanchez, P., & Ricart, J. E. (2010). Business model innovation and sources of value creation in low–income markets. European Management Review, 138-154.

Shin, J., & Park, Y. (2009). Both business process and customer value have been continuously emphasized, and are thus central to business model variants. Industrial Marketing Management, 38 (3), 324-337. DOI: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2007.06.017

Sniukas, M. (2012). Making business model innovation happen. Applied Innovation Management, 1-27, Retrieved March, 31, 2016, from

Stähler , P. (2002). Geschäftsmodelle in der digitalen Ökonomie. JOSEF EUL.

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, 2014. Software & IT Services. Research Brief. 1-44, Retrieved March, 31, 2016, from

Teece, D. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43, 172-194. DOI:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.003

Treacy, M., & Wiersema, F. (1997). Marktführerschaft: Wege zur Spitze. München: Heyne.

Vester, F., & Hesler, A. (1980). Sensitivitätsmodell. Frankfurt am Main: Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Untermain.

Wartini-Twardowska, J. (2014). Konsolidacja w grupach kapitałowych z perspektywy modelu biznesu na przykładzie sektora producentów systemów informatycznych zarządzania. Warszawa: C.H. Beck.

Wirtz, B. W. (2011). Business Model Management. Design – Instrumente – Erfolgsfaktoren von Geschäftsmodellen. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2008). The fit between product market strategy and business model: implications for firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 29 (1), 1-26. DOI: 10.1002/smj.642