• Timur Kanapyanov Department of Political Science, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University
  • Naubat Kaliyev Department of Political Science, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University
Keywords: Parliament, post-socialist, president, Romania, Kazakhstan, parliamentary development, comparison


Studies on legislature-executive relations have gained a crucial place in the field of comparative politics. However, the most intriguing challenge for comparative political studies has been investigating the collapse of socialist regimes and development of new institutions in post-communist and post-Soviet countries. Accordingly, this article compares legislative-executive relations in Kazakhstan and Romania, in a longitudinal perspective, from the time of communism’s collapse. These relationships have evolved somewhat differently in Romania compared to Kazakhstan, despite both countries having semi-presidential systems. A comparative analysis helps us to better understand the role and place of the parliament in each of the respective countries. The authors identify similarities and differences of legislature-executive relations in post-communist Romania and post-Soviet Kazakhstan, while making some inference about the strength of legislatures. The article concludes with a summation that the frequent cases of no-confidence votes in Romania has resulted in an unstable government and, often, governmental crises, but at the same time, this indicates a relatively powerful parliament, whereas the non-existence of such practices in Kazakhstan has contributed to a strong, stable, and unanimous cabinet, but with a weak and subservient parliament.


Constitution of Romania (2003). Retrieved from

Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1995). Retrieved from

Dimulescu, V.A. (2009). The Institution of Presidential Impeachment in Semi-Presidential Systems: the Case Study of Romania (Unpublished master’s thesis). Central European University, Budapest.

Dimulescu, V.A. (2010). The presidential impeachment in semi-presidential systems. case study: Romania 2007. EUROPOLIS Journal of Political Analysis and Theory, 4 (1), 101-132.

Gönenҫ, L. (2002). Prospects for Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Countries, Law in Eastern Europe, Vol. 50. Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Huntington, S.P. (1991). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Norton, P. & Olson, D.M. (2007). Post-communist and post-soviet parliaments: divergent paths from transition. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 13 (1), 164-196.

Roper, S.D. (2005). Romania: The Unfinished Revolution. Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Shugart, M.C. & Carey, J.M. (1992). Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tănăsescu, E.S. (2008). Presidential elements in government. the President of Romania, or: The slippery slope of a political system. European Constitutional Law Review, 4, 64-97.

Whitmore, S. (2004). State-building in Ukraine. The Ukrainian parliament, 1990-2003. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

Zhanarstanova, M. & Kanapyanov, T. (2011). Development of Post-Communist Parliamentarism in Kazakhstan and Romania: a Comparative Analysis. Cinq Continents 1 (3), 198-217.