PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSES OF SALT FORMATION IN THE WATER OF BALKHASH LAKE
In recent years about 5.04 million tons of salts a year arrive down the River Ili to Balkhash Lake. Using water of the Ili River for filling the Kapchagaisky reservoirreduced volume of arriving water from the river to 2/3 and decreased level of the lake. It causes mineralization, which advances forecasts. Complex research of influence of the IliRiver on the current state of salt formation in Balkhash Lake is needed as well as hydrochemical research of the water area of Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. In our study the chemical analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of water with use of classical and physical and chemical methods of the analysis, such as, nuclear and absorbing, roentgen fluоrescence spectrometry and crystal and optical analysis was realized. It is established that crystallization of salts begins with calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite, crystals of nesquehonite join this process, and in deposit the main carbonate of magnesium drops out. Processes of metamorfization with participation of ions of carbonate, hydro carbonate and calcium, are bringing calcite sedimentation. They occur everywhere, but processes with participation of magnesium ions are bringing magnesite or dolomite sedimentation only in extreme east stretch of the lake. In saturated solutions of carbonates there is an increase in ions of potassium in sediment. Thus, their quantities increase a little. It is especially sharp for sulfate and sodium chloride in the direction from the west to the east. The calcium carbonate in the firm phase possesses more absorbing ability, than magnesium carbonate, and the presence of ions of potassium at sediment doesn't change structure of the last. At isothermal evaporation of mix of solutions of potassium carbonate with saturated solution of calcium carbonate, and also potassium sulfate with saturated solution of calcium sulfate and the joint sedimentation of potassium is noticed.
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