PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT residues (DDTs) can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Silurus glanis), pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica) and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus). The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.
Ael, E. V., Covaci, A., Blust, R. & Bervoets, L. (2012). Persistent organic pollutants in the Scheldt estuary: Environmental distribution and bioaccumulation. Environment International, 48, 17–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.017 PMid:22832186
Bayarri, S., Baldassarri, L. T., Iacovella, N., Ferrara, F. & di Domenico, A. (2001). PCDDs, PCFDs, PCBs and DDE in edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea. Chemosphere, 43, 601–610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00412-4
Binelli, A. & Provini, A. (2003). POPs in edible clams from different Italian and European markets and possible human health risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 879–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00043-2
Boscher, A., Gobert, S., Guignard, C., Ziebel, C. J., L’Hoste, L., Gutleb, A. C., Cauchie, H. M., Hoffmann, L. & Schmidt, G. (2010). Chemical contaminants in fish species from rivers in the North of Luxembourg: Potential impact on the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Chemosphere, 78, 785–792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.12.024 PMid:20060148
Coelhan, M., Stroheimer, J. & Barlas, H. (2006). Organochlorine levels in edible fish from the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Environment International, 32, 775–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.03.015 PMid:16750566
Commission of the European Communities. (1999). EU commission decision 1999/788/EC of 3 December 1999 on protective measures with regard to contamination by dioxins of certain products of porcine and poultry origin intended for human or animal consumption. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 310, 4 December 1999, 62-70.
Covaci, A., Gheorghe, A., Hulea, O. & Schepens, P. (2006). Levels and distribution of organochloride pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania. Environmental Pollution, 140, 136-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.06.008 PMid:16112310
Erdogrul, Ö., Covaci, A. & Schepens, P. (2005). Levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish species from Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Environment International, 31, 703–711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.01.002 PMid:15910967
European Commission. (2011). Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011 of 2 December 2011 amending regulation (EC) no. 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin like PCBs in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L 320, 18–23.
Ferreira, M., Antunes, P., Gil, O., Vale, C. & Reis-Henriques, M. A. (2004). Organochlorine contaminants in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and mullet (Mugil cephalus) from Douro estuary, and their use as sentinel species for environmental monitoring. Aquatic Toxicology, 69, 347–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.06.005 PMid:15312718
Fisk, A. T., Hobson, K. A. & Norstrom, R. J. (2001). Influence of chemical and biological factors on trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the Northwater Polynya marine food web. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 732–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es001459w PMid:11349285
Gagnon, B. K. (2011). From bases to bones – ruled by criminals. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://space4peace.blogspot.com/2011/05/from-bases-to-bones-ruled-by-criminals.html
Georgieva, S., Stancheva, M. & Makedonski, L. (2012). Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in marine fish. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 23 (1), 92-98.
Gouina, T., Harner, T., Daly, G.L., Wania, F., Mackay, D. & Jones, K.C. (2005). Variability of concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in air: implications for monitoring, modeling and control. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 151–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.022
Kalyoncu, L., Agca, I. & Aktumsek, A. (2009). Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey. Chemosphere, 74, 885–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.11.020 PMid:19103455
Langer, P., Kocan, A., Tajtakova, M., Petrik, J., Chovancova, J., Drobna, B. et al. (2003). Possible effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorinated pesticides on the thyroid after long-term exposure to heavy environmental pollution. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 45, 526– 532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000058346.05741.b0
Masmoudi, W., Romdhane, M.S., Kheґriji, S. & El Cafsi, M. (2007). Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) from Tunis Bay, Mediterranean sea (Tunisia). Food Chemistry, 105, 72–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.037
Naso, B., Perrone, D., Ferrante, M. C., Bilancione, M. & Lucidano, A. (2005). Persistent organic pollutants in edible marine species from the Gulf of Naples, southern Italy. Science of The Total Environment, 343, 83–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.10.007 PMid:15862838
Olsson, A., Vitinish, M., Plikshs, M. & Bergman, A. (1999). Halogenated environmental contaminants in perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Latvian coastal areas. The Science of the Total Environment, 239, 19-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00287-9
Perugini, M., Lavaliere, M., Giammarino, A., Mazzone, P., Olivieri, V. & Amorena, M. (2004). Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible marine organisms from the Central Adriatic Sea. Chemosphere, 57, 391-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.034 PMid:15331266
Smith, A. G. & Gangoli, S. (2002). Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurrence and health concerns. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 767–779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00046-7
Stoichev, T., Makedonski, L., Trifonova, T., Stancheva, M. & Ribarova, F. (2007). DDT in fish from the Bulgarian region of the Black Sea. Chemistry and Ecology, 23, 191-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02757540701339851
Tanabe, S., Madhusree, B., Ozturk, A. A., Tatsukawa, R., Miyazaki, N., Ozdamar, E., et al. (1997). Persistent organochlorine residues in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 338 – 347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(96)00081-1
UNEP. (2001). Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Retrieved from: http://www.chem.unep.ch/sc/
Woitke, P., Wellmitz, J., Helma, D., Kube, P., Lepom, P. & Litheraty, P. (2003). Analysis and assessment of heavy metal pollution in suspended solids and sediments of the river Danube. Chemosphere, 51, 633–642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00217-0
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
email@example.com, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz