CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND CONSUMER ASSOCIATIONS WITH SLOVAK BRANDS
This paper describes the perception of Slovak consumers toward domestic and foreign brands and examines their associations with Slovak brands. The introduction to country of origin in marketing is provided, followed by a brief description of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity; then description of research methodology is mentioned; and finally, research results are presented.
The representative research was conducted in 2013 over a sample of 1,067 Slovak consumers over the age of 16. To capture the spontaneous reactions to Slovak brands, the respondents were asked to name what comes to their mind when they hear the expression “Slovak brand.” Slovak consumers associate domestic brands with quality, tradition, fair prices, and Slovakia. Their primary feelings toward Slovak brands are mostly positive. If they have negative perception, that is only because domestic products are not often available in stores and there is a lack of Slovak brands. Moreover, the consumers were presented with a list of 27 statements concerning their attitude toward domestic and foreign brands and their brand buying behavior. Based on the research results, Slovak consumers can be observed as very brand-oriented and often possess a strong brand loyalty when making purchasing decisions. Slovak consumers are not necessarily patriotic as far as purchasing is concerned. The main reason for buying Slovak products is only to support the economy and the Slovak consumers are very aware of the benefits of supporting domestic production. Nevertheless, consumer ethnocentrism is not typical for Slovaks.
Akdogan, M. S., Ozgener, S., Kaplan, M., & Coskun, A. (2012). The Effects of Consumer Ethnocentrism and Consumer Animosity on the Re-Purchase Intent: The Moderating Role of Consumer Loyalty. Emerging Markets Journal, 2(1). doi:10.5195/emaj.2012.15
Bandara, W. M. C., & Chovancová, M. (2012). Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes Towards Foreign Beer Brands: With Evidence from Zlin Region in the Czech Republic. Journal of Competitiveness, 12(2), 3-19.
Jones, C., Hesterly, W. S., & Borgatti, S. P. (1997). A general theory of network governance: Exchange conditions and social mechanisms. The Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 911-945.
Klein, J. G., Richard, E. & Morris, M. D. (1998). The Animosity Model of Foreign Product Purchase: An Empirical Test in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Marketing, 13(62), 89-100.
Lavrakas, P. (2008). Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. doi:10.4135/9781412963947
Liptáková, J. (2011). Brand loyalty continues to reign among Slovaks. Retrieved from http://spectator.sme.sk/
Liptáková, J. (2012). Seeking patriotic buyers in Slovakia. The Slovak Spectator, 4, 6-9.
Roth, K. P., Diamantopoulos, A., & Montesinos, A. (2008). Home Country Image, Country Brand Equity and Consumers’ Product Preferences: An Empirical Study. Management International Review, 48(5), 577-602.
Shimp, T., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: construction and validation of the cetscale. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(1), 280-289.
Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: The sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals, NY: Harper & Row.
Torres, N. H. J., & Gutiérrez, S. (2007). The purchase of foreign products: The role of firm’s country-of-origin reputation, consumer ethnocentrism, animosity and trust. Retrieved from http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/75189/1/DAEE_13_07_Purcching.pdf
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz