• Elena Welchinska Pharmaceutical Faculty, Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv
Keywords: forensic chemistry, halothane, toxicity, poison


The quantity of pharmaceutical preparations, which are used in medicine and different areas of the economy increased because of the development of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. These substances can caise poisonings in certain situations. The sources of poisonings are: sewage of industrial enterprises; pesticides (chemical poisons) for fighting agricultural pests; soil; vegetables and fruits;  chemical substances for fights against rodents and insects. The use of chemical substances in the economy increases the quantity of poisons as objects of forensic toxicological analysis. “Forensic chemistry” — is a science which studies methods for the isolation, purification, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of toxic and poisonous substances and their metabolites in objects of various origins:  animal and plant biological materials, industrial waste, emissions of waste water, the air of industrial enterprises, soil and agricultural crops, etc. The aim of this work is to study the importance of chemicals, namely fluorine-containing organic compounds, which are strong toxic substances, during the study of "Forensic Chemistry" throughout the academic period at the Pharmaceutical Faculty in Ukraine.


Bayerman, K. (1987). Opredelenie sledovih kolitcestv organitceskih veschestv [Determination of minimal quantities of organic substances]. (462 p.). Мoscow, M.: “Mir”. (In Russian).

Busari, J., & Arnold, A. E. R. (2009). Educating Doctors in the Clinical Workplace: Unraveling the Process of Teaching and Learning in the Medical Resident as Teacher. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 55(4), 278-283. doi: 10.4103/0022-3859.58935

Ellenhorn, M.J. (2003). Medicinskaya toksikologiya: Diagnostika i lechenie otravleniy tcheloveka [Medical toxicology: Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning] (2-d ed.) (G.K. Faizova, Y.L. Amchenkova, S.B. Matveeva, S.V. Demicheva, Trans.): In 2 vol. Vol.2. (p.203-213). Мoscow, M.:“Medicine“. (Original work published 1995). (In Russian).

Erskine, R. & James, M.F.M. (1990). Isoflurane but not halothane stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 64, 723-727.© European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Helsinki, 2005.

Flanagan, R. J. et al. (2007). Fundamental of analytical toxicology. (p. 171-204). England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Knunyants, I.L. (Ed.) et al.. (1992).). Khimicheskaya enciklopediya [Chemical encyclopedia]: (Vols.1-5). Мoscow, Russia: Sov. Encycl. (In Russian).

Komunike Konferencii Ministriv evropeyskih krain, vidpovidalnih za sferu vizhoi osvity [Communiqué of Conference European countries’ Ministers which responsible for higher education]. Budapest – Vienna, 12 March 2010.

Moffat, A. C., Osselton, M.D., & Widdop, B. (2011). Clarke’s analysis of drugs and poisons in pharmaceuticals, body fluids and postmortem material (4-th ed.). (p.232-238). UK, USA: Pharmaceutical Press.

Project 562013-EPP-1-2015-1-PL-EPPKA2-CBHE-SP “Quality assurance system in Ukraine: development on the base of ENQA standards and guidelines” Erasmus + Wroclaw, 2015,

Ray, D.C. & Drummond, G.B. (1991). Halothane hepatitis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 67, 84-99.

Saito, K. et al. (1995). Determination of the volatile anasthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in biological specimens by pulse-heating GC-MS. The Journal of Analitycal Toxicology, 19, 115-119.

Welchinska, E.V. (2017). Toxicological and forensic chemistry (criminal analysis). Poisonous substances and their biotransformation. (p. 53-60). Кiev, Ukraine.: ID “ADEF-Ukraine“.(In English).