• Nihal Sokmen Department of Textile Engineering, Technology Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul
  • Banu Yeşim Buyukakinci Department of Textile Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Aydın University, Istanbul
Keywords: Boron Minerals, Boron Sources, Eco-friendly materials, Textile sector


Commonly found in the earth’s crust, boron happens to be the 51st element of the periodic table and is not found in its elemental state in nature. It is known that there are about 230 different boron minerals in nature. Turkey has the largest boron reserves in the world. In addition to this, Turkey’s boron minerals have the highest quality and production conditions that are more economical than other boron producing countries. For this reason, boron has great importance for Turkey and there is a significant demand for new areas of usage so that Turkey would be able to contribute to the national economy with these resources. The institute of BOREN (National Boron Research Institute) was established for this purpose in Turkey. This institute funds related projects for the extension of boron usage areas. One of the open sectors for innovation is textile technology.

This study investigates the history of boron and its current situation in Turkey as well as the studies conducted regarding boron and its compounds especially in the textile field. Taking the available boron reserves in Turkey into consideration, the need for more research and development studies on boron as an environment-friendly element is clear for the textile industry.


Absalom ST. (1979). Boron, Mineral Commodity Summaries, U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Mines.

Acarkan N. (2002). Boron Products and Their Uses. Retrieved from

Akarslan F. (2015). Investigation on Fire Retardancy Properties of Boric Acid Doped Textile Material, Acta Physica Polonica A, 128, 403.

Akbar W, Karagoz A, Basim G B, Noor M, Syed T, Lum J & Unluagac M. (2015). Nano-boron as an Antibacterial Agent for Functionalized Textiles, MRS Online Proceedings Library Archive, 1793, 53-57.

Armitage P, Ebdon J R, Hunt B J, Jones M S & Thorpe F G. (1996) . Chemical modification of polymers to improve flame retardance-1 The influence of boron-containing groups, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 54, 387-393.

Bilgiç M & Dayık M. (2013). Boron Propeties and Its Advantages In Textile Industry, Electronic Journal of Textile Technologies, 7, No.2, 27-37.

BOREN. (2012) National Boron Research Institute, Retrieved from

Buyukakinci BY., Yılmaz A. (2017). Investigation of Boric Acid and Sodium Borate Effect on Flame Retardancy of Cotton and Polyester Fabrics, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29, (4) 893-895.

Buyukakinci BY, Sokmen N & Bayender B. (2016). Effect of sodium borhydride on microwave assisted reductive cleaning of dyed polyester fabrics, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 28, 2752-2754.

Cavdar A D, Mengeloglu F & Karakus K (2015). Effect of boric acid and borax on mechanical, fire and thermal properties of wood flour filled high density polyethylene composites, Measurement, 60, 6–12.

Demirel B & Nasıroğlu S. (2017). Stategies fort he Use of Boron Minerals ans Wastes in the Cement, Science and Eng. J. of Fırat Univ. 29,(1), 95-100.

Dincer I, Colpan C O, Kizilkan O & Ezan M A. (2015). Progress in Clean Energy, Novel Systems and Applications, Springer, 2. Edited .

Dogan M, Yılmaz A & Bayramlı E. (2010). Synergistic effect of boron containing substances on flame retardancy and thermal stability of intumescent polypropylene composites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 95, 2584-2588.

Dogan M & Unlu S M, (2014). Flame retardant effect of boron compounds on red phosphorus containing epoxy resins, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 99, 12-17

Duman I. (2013). Bor madenleri ve stratejik bor ürünleri, Bilim ve Ütopya Dergisi 114, 18-21

Etimaden. (2014). Eti Maden Bor Sektörü Raporu, Eti Maden Stratejik Plan. Retrieved from

Durgun G. (2010). Synthesis of Various Calcium Borates, Characterization and Investigation of Flame Retardant Effenciencies, Master Thesis, Ankara University.

Eti Maden Stratejik Plan (2015-2019) Retrieved from

Gemci R, Gülşen G. (2010). Güç Tutuşur Kumaş Üretiminde Bor Bileşiklerinin Kullanılması, Tekstil Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 4(1) 1-10.

Güyagüler T. (2001). Türkiye Bor Potansiyeli, 4.Endüstriyel Hammaddeler Sempozyumu,18-19 Oct.2001, İzmir, Türkiye.

Iyigundogdu Z U, Demir O & Asutay A B. (2017). Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 181 (3) 1155-1166.

Kalın B M. (2008.). Improving Fire Retardancy Specify of Textile Surfaces, Master Thesis, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Tekstil Mühendisliği, Kahramanmaraş.

Kılıç A M.(2004). Importance of Boron Mine for Turkey and Place in the Future, II. Uluslararası Bor sempozyumu, 23-25 Sept 2004. Eskişehir, Turkey.

Laszlo JA. (1997). Regeneration of Dye-Saturated Quaternized Cellulose by Bisulfite-Mediated Borohydride Reduction of Dye Azo Groups: An Improved Processs for Decolorization of Textile Eastewaters, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 3647-3653.

Meksi N, Kechida M & Mhenni F. (2007). Cotton dyeing by indigo with the borohydride process: Effect of some experimental conditions on indigo reduction and dyeing quality, Chemical Engineering Journal 131, 187-193.

Moares A.G.O. (2011), Sierakowski M R, Abreu T M & Amico S C, Sodium Borohydride as a Protective Agent for the Alkaline Treatment of Sisal Fibers for Polymer Composites, Composite Interfaces, 18, 407-418.

Moares A.G.O. (2012). Sierakowski M R & Amico S C, The Novel Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Protective Agent for the Chemical Treatment of vegetable Fibers, Fibers and Polymers, 13 (5) 641-646.

MTA. (1976). Türkiye Bor Mineralleri Envanteri, MTA yayınları, 162, 52.

Özpeker I. (2017). Bor’un Kullanımı, Tüketimi ve Ulusal Gelire Katkı Olanağı. Retrieved from

Ringgaard M. (2002).An Investigation of the Effects of Borohydride treatments of Oxidized Cellulose Textiles. In: Strengthening the Bond: Science and Textiles, North American Textile Conservation Conference. 91 – 101

Sarina J E, Theerriault B M & Reckow D A. (2006). Evalution of Water Reuse Technologies for the Textile Industry, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 132 (3) 315-323.

Türkez H. (2008). Effects of boric acid and borax on titanium dioxide genotoxicity, Journal of Applied Toxicology 28, (5), 658-664.

Türkez H, Geyikoğlu F, Tatar A, Keleş S & Özkan A. (2007). Effects of some boron compounds on peripheral human blood, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung Journal of Biosciences, (62), 889-896.

Unlu S M, Dogan S D & Dogan M. (2014), Comparative study of boron compounds and aluminum trihydroxide as flame retardant additives in epoxy resin, Polym. Adv. Technol, 25, 769-776.

Woods WG. (1994).An Introduction to Boron: History, Sources, Uses, and Chemistry, Environmental Health Perspectives, 102, 5-11.

Xie K, Gao A & Zhang Y. (2013). Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen, Carbohydrate Polymers, 98, 706.

Yao J, Dou C, Wei S & Zheng M. (2015). Using ecological reducing agents instead of sodium sulphide in dyeing with CI Sulphur Black 1, Coloration Technology, 131, 379-383.

Yenialaca Ç.(2009). Bor ve Kullanım Alanları, Master Thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.

Yılmazer D & Kanık M. (2009). Bleaching of wool with sodium borohydride, Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 4, 45-50.

Yiğitbaşıoğlu H.(2004). Türkiye İçin Önemli Bir Maden: Bor, Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi. 2: 13-25. Retrieved from .

Younis AA. (2016). Evaluation of the flammability and thermal properties of a new flame retardant coating applied on polyester fabric, Egyptian Journal of Petroleum,25,(2), 161-169.

Zhang Q, Chen G & Xing T. (2017). Silk flame retardant finish by ternary silica sol containing boron and nitrogen, Applied Surface Science.

Zhang Q, Zhang W, Huang J, Lai Y, Xing T, Chen G, Jin W, Liu H & Sun B. (2015). Flame retardance and thermal stability of wool fabric treated by boron containing silica sols, Materials and Design, 85, 796–799.