• Georgi Iliev Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Plovdiv Paisii Hilendarski
Keywords: crowdsourcing, three-layer architecture, Representational State Transfer (REST), video streaming, video codec


Mobile crowdsourcing is a fast-growing emerging approach whereby large groups of mobile users are engaged in a collaborative work on performing a particular task or using its results. This paper presents a concept for the development of a mobile crowdsourcing system with extended capabilities for real-time broadcasting and receiving amateur football match video. It is designed to resolve the problem of possible delays and the overload of a system and to accelerate the process of big video data transmission. The proposed system is based on a service-oriented, three-layer cloud architecture and a specialized mobile video streaming application. The architecture includes a main server, infrastructure of scalable multi-parallel video processing engine and an auxiliary server for synchronizing real-time information, which significantly facilitates the handling of user requests with minimal cost and at a high speed. The concept is realized in the Footlikers platform as a basic client-server, WOWZA streaming engine, deployed on an Amazon EC2 cloud machine and a simple sync-server. The results of the program realization of the developed system prototype are presented, regarding football game video steaming intended for amateur football competitions based and organized in France, Belgium and Luxembourg.


Adobe AIR technology. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.adobe.com/products/air.html

Brabham, D. C. (2013). Crowdsourcing. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Christensen, J. H. (2009). Using RESTful web-services and cloud computing to create next generation mobile applications. In: OOPSLA '09 Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN conference companion on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications, pp. 627-634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1639950.1639958.

Doan, A., Ramakrishnan, R. & Halevy, A. Y. (2011). Crowdsourcing systems on the World-Wide Web. Communications of the ACM, 54, 86-96.

EC2, Elastic Compute Cloud. (2018). Retrieved from https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/WindowsGuide/ec2-wg.pdf

Fuchs-Kittowski, F. & Faust, D. (2014). Architecture of mobile crowdsourcing systems. In: Baloian, N., Burstein, F., Ogata, H., Santoro, F., Zurita, G. (eds) Collaboration and Technology (CRIWG 2014). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8658, pp. 121-136, Springer, Cham. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10166-8_12.

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. (2018). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.264/MPEG-4_AVC

Howe, J. (2006). The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired Magazine, 14(6), 1-4.

Korthaus, A. & Dai, W. (2015). Opportunities and challenges for mobile crowdsourcing – conceptualisation of a platform architecture. Int. J. High Performance Computing and Networking, 8(1), 16-27.

Parmar, H. & Thornburgh, M. (2012). Adobe’s Real Time Messaging Protocol, Adobe. Retrieved from http://www.images.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/devnet/rtmp/pdf/rtmp_specification_1.0.pdf

Pereira, R. & Pereira E. G. (2016). Video streaming: Overview and challenges in the internet of things. In: Pervasive Computing, Next Generation Platforms for Intelligent Data Collection, 417-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/FiCloud.2014.18.

Prpic, J. (2017). Next generation crowdsourcing for collective intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.03109.

Redmond, P. (2016). Lumen Programming Guide: Writing PHP Microservices, REST and Web Service APIs, Berkely: Apress.

Sheehan K. B. (2018). Crowdsourcing research: Data collection with Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Communication Monographs, 85(1): Special Issue: Advances in Methods and Statistics, 140-156.

WOWZA Streaming Engine. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.wowza.com/products/streaming-engine

Yuen, M.-C., King, I. & Leung, K.-S. (2011). A Survey of crowdsourcing systems: privacy, security, risk and trust. In: IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. on Social Computing, pp. 766-773. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.203.