CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF SOIL IN SHUMEN CITY PARK
Sedentary lifestyle has become a great concern to human health. City parks play a great role in the solution of this problem, but exposure to urban pollutants leads to the necessity to monitor environmental quality.
Purpose of Study The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soil samples collected from Shumen city park using Allium cepa L.-test.
Methods The following microscopic parameters were used: mitotic index, index of each phase of mitotic division, mitotic abnormalities and interphase cells with micronuclei or two nuclei.
Findings and Results The decline of the mitotic activity and changes in the proportion of mitotic phases indicate soil cytotoxicity. Various mitotic abnormalities and binucleated cells revealed genotoxicity.
Conclusions and Recommendations Established cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soil revealed a potential health risk to park users. Further analyses should be provided, since positive results from Allium-test serve as an alarm.
Bhatta, P. and Sakya, S.R. (2008). Study of mitotic activity and chromosomal behaviour in root meristem of Allium cepa L. treated with magnesium sulphate. Ecoprint, 15:83-88. http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ECO/article/viewFile/1947/1802
Chahal, V., Nagpal, A., Pakade, Y.B. and Katnoria, J.K. (2014). Ecotoxicological studies of soil using analytical and biological methods: a review. IJIRSE, 8(3):302-318. http://waset.org/publications/9998465/ecotoxicological-studies-of-soil-using-analytical-and-biological-methods-a-review
Corneanu, M., Corneanu, G.C., Cojocaru, L. and Gămăneci, G. (2009). The evaluation of soil genotoxicity by modified Allium test. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. ŞtiinţeleNaturii, 25:235-242. http://biozoojournals.ro/oscsn/cont/25/Ec01-Corneanu.pdf
Fiskesjö, G. (1993). The Allium test in wastewater monitoring. Environmental Toxicology, 8(3):291-298. doi:10.1002/tox.2530080306
Fontanetti, C.S., Nogarol, L.R., de Souza, R.B., Perez, D.G. and Maziviero, G.T. (2011). Bioindicators and biomarkers in the assessment of soil toxicity. In S. Pascucci (Ed.), Soil Contaminat, 144-168. doi:10.5772/25042
Galušková, I., Borůvka, L. and Drábek, O. (2010). Urban Soil Contamination by Potentially Risk Elements Soil and Water Research, 6(2):55-60.
İlbaş, A.I., Gönen, U., Yilmaz, S. and Dadandi, M.Y. (2012). Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells. Turkish Journal of Botany, 36:263-268. doi:10.3906/bot-1102-5
Kabisch, N. and Haase, D. (2013). Green spaces of European cities revisited for 1990–2006. Landscape and Urban Planning, 110:113-122.
Karim, Z., Qureshi, B.A., Mumtaz, M. and Qureshi, S. (2014). Heavy metal content in urban soils as an indicator of anthropogenic and natural influences on landscape of Karachi. A multivariate spatio-temporal analysis. Ecological Indicators, 42:20-31. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.07.020
Lamsal, K., Ghimire, B.K., Sharma, P., Ghimiray, A.K., Kim, S.W., Yu, C.Y., Chung, I.M., Lee, Y.S., Kim J. and Shakya, S.R. (2010). Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium cepa L. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(27):4204-4210. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/82625
Leme, D.M. and Marin-Morales, M.A. (2009). Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutation. Research, 682:71-81. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.06.002
Ljung, K., Selinus, O. and Otabbong, E. (2006). Metals in soils of children’s urban environments in the small northern European city of Uppsala. Science of the Total Environment, 366:749-759.
Luo, X.S., Ding, J., Xu, B., Wang, Y.J., Li, H.B. and Yu, S. (2012). Incorporating bioaccessibility into human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban park soils. Science of the Total Environment, 424:88-96. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.053
Maluszynska, J., Juchimiuk, J. (2005). Plant genotoxicity: a molecular cytogenetic approach in plant bioassays. Arhives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 56:177-184. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/14375079.pdf
Monarca, S., Feretti, D., Zerbini, I., Alberti, A., Zani, C., Resola, S., Gelatti, U. and Nardi, G. (2002). Soil contamination detected using bacterial and plant mutagenicity tests and chemical analyses. Environmental. Research. Sect. A, 88:64-69. doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4317
Moosavi, M.H. and Zarasvandi, A. (2009). Geochemistry of urban soils in the Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS) city, Khuzestan province, Iran. Environmental Marks. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3:392-399. DOI: 10.3923/rjes.2009.392.399 URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjes.2009.392.399
Olorunfemi, D.I., Okoloko, G.E., Bakare, A.A. and Akinboro, A. (2011) Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Cassava Effluents using the Allium cepa assay. Research Journal of Mutagenesis, 1(1):1-9.
Owen, N., Sparling, P.B., Healy, G.N., Dunstan, D.W. and Matthews, C.E. (2010). Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(12):1138-1141. http://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2010.0444
Science Communication Unit, (2013). Soil Contamination: Impacts on Human Health. University of the West of England, Bristol. Science for Environment Policy. In depth Report. Report produced for the European Commission DG Environment, 5:1-29. http://ec.europa.eu/science-environment-policy
Selmi, S.S., Abdelfattah, T.S. and Mostafa, F.D. (2014). Deregulation of mitosis progression and cytotoxic effect triggered in Allium Cepa L. roots by Rubus Sancatus Schreber Extract. Life Science Journal, 11(11):1047-1058. http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life1111/181_27482life111114_1047_1058.pdf
Soodan, R.K., Pakade, Y.B., Nagpal, A. and Katnoria, J.K. (2014). Analytical techniques for estimation of heavy metals in soil ecosystem: A tabulated review. Talanta, 125:405-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2014.02.033
Tedesco S.B. and Laughinghouse IV, H.D. (2012). Bioindicator of Genotoxicity: the Allium cepa test. Environmental Contamination. In J. Srivastava, (Ed.), InTech, 137-156. doi:10.5772/31371
Tripathy, S.K., Bijayinee, S., Samad, I. and Das, R.K. (2013). Endosulfan: a potential genotoxicant on Allium cepa root tip cells. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, 5(2):29-35. doi:10.5897/JABSD12.0001
Watanabe, Т. and Hirayama, T. (2001). Genotoxicity of Soil. Journal of Health Science, 47(5):433-438.
White, P.A. and Claxton, L.D. (2004). Mutagens in contaminated soil: a review. Mutation Research, 567(2-3):227-345.
Yang, J. and Zhang, G. (2015). Formation, characteristics and eco-environmental implications of urban soils: a review. Journal Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 61:30-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2015.1035622
Yildiz, M. and Arikan, E.S. (2008). Genotoxicity testing of quizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide using the Allium cepa anaphase–telophase chromosome aberration assay. Caryologia, 61:45-52. doi:10.1080/00087114.2008.10589608
Žigová, A., Šťastný, M., Ložek, V. and Šrein, V. (2008). Soil cover of the protected areas of Prague as an indicator of environmental changes. Acta Research Reports, 17:21-25. https://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2008_17/3_Zigova.pdf
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz