• Anil Demircali Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Huseyin Uvet Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Yusuf Kahraman Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Tunc Kose Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Serhat Sisu Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Kadir Erkan Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Microrobots, Magnetic Levitation


: In this article, we present a microrobot manipulation technique with high precision positional ability to move in a fluid environment with diamagnetic levitation. Untethered manipulation of microrobots by means of externally applied magnetic forces has been emerging as a promising field of research, particularly due to its potential for medical and biological applications. The decreased size of the robots makes them suitable for both in vitro applications such as sorting, moving, filtering micro particles (e.g. cells) within lab-on-a-chip platforms and in vivo applications such as minimally-invasive surgeries or targeted drug delivery inside a human body. Precise (nano) positioning of the levitated microrobot on the pyrolytic graphite is demonstrated in the liquid. Positioning is achieved by the movement of a "lifter" magnet on the sensitive microstage. The suspended microrobot successfully tracked the identified roots. Our study is about controlling the microrobot suspended on the pyrolytic graphite with nano-precision via fixed lifting magnets. The purpose of the presented method is to eliminate the friction force between the surface of the substrate and the microrobot. Thus, high accuracy motion can be achieved.


Chen, J. Y., Zhou, J. B., & Meng, G. (2008). Diamagnetic bearings for MEMS: Performance and stability analysis. Mechanics Research Communications, 35(8), 546-552.

Chung, S. E., Dong, X., & Sitti, M. (2015). Three-dimensional heterogeneous assembly of coded microgels using an untethered mobile microgripper. Lab on a Chip, 15(7), 1667-1676.

Feng, L., Di, P., & Arai, F. (2016). High-precision motion of magnetic microrobot with ultrasonic levitation for 3-D rotation of single oocyte. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 35(12), 1445-1458.

Feng, L., Ichikawa, A., Arai, F., & Hagiwara, M. (2012, August). Continuous enucleation of bovine oocyte by microrobot with local flow distribution control. In Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement on the Nanoscale (3M-NANO), 2012 International Conference on (pp. 59-64). IEEE.

Fusco, S., Huang, H. W., Peyer, K. E., Peters, C., Häberli, M., Ulbers, A., ... & Nelson, B. J. (2015). Shape-switching microrobots for medical applications: The influence of shape in drug delivery and locomotion. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 7(12), 6803-6811.

Fusco, S., Sakar, M. S., Kennedy, S., Peters, C., Bottani, R., Starsich, F., ... & Mooney, D. (2014). An Integrated icrorobotic Platform for On‐Demand, Targeted Therapeutic Interventions. Advanced Materials, 26(6), 952-957.

Hagiwara, M., Kawahara, T., Yamanishi, Y., & Arai, F. (2010). Driving method of microtool by horizontally arranged permanent magnets for single cell manipulation. Applied Physics Letters, 97(1), 013701.

Hu, W., Ishii, K. S., Fan, Q., & Ohta, A. T. (2012). Hydrogel microrobots actuated by optically generated vapour bubbles. Lab on a Chip, 12(19), 3821-3826.

Katz, V. J. (1979). The history of Stokes' theorem. Mathematics Magazine, 52(3), 146-156.

Kustler, G. (2007). Diamagnetic levitation-historical milestones. Revue Roumaine Des Sciences Techniques Serie Electrotechnique Et Energetique, 52(3), 265.

Nelson, B. J., Kaliakatsos, I. K., & Abbott, J. J. (2010). Microrobots for minimally invasive medicine. Annual review of biomedical engineering, 12, 55-85.

Pelrine, R., Wong-Foy, A., McCoy, B., Holeman, D., Mahoney, R., Myers, G., ... & Low, T. (2012, May). Diamagnetically levitated robots: An approach to massively parallel robotic systems with unusual motion properties. In Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 739-744). IEEE.

Peyer, K. E., Zhang, L., & Nelson, B. J. (2013). Bio-inspired magnetic swimming microrobots for biomedical applications. Nanoscale, 5(4), 1259-1272.

Ye, Z., Duan, Z., & Su, Y. (2015, February). Theoretic and numerical analysis of diamagnetic levitation and its experimental verification. In The International Conference on Photonics and Optical Engineering and the Annual West China Photonics Conference (icPOE 2014) (pp. 944907-944907). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Zhang, T., Zhang, M., & Cui, T. (2011, June). Microfluidic valves based on TiO 2 coating with tunable surface wettability between super hydrophilic and super hydrophobic. In Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS), 2011 16th International (pp. 306-309). IEEE.