PREVENTION OF RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN NURSING
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease, in terms of its frequency, the severity of organ damage, and the consequences for the health of the population constitutes one of the most pressing problems of our population. The prevention of subsequent coronary events and the maintenance of physical functioning in such patients are a major challenge in preventive care. However, many patients opt for a change in their lifestyle, some with the support of a health professional.
Objective: This empirical survey focuses on the knowledge of respondents about preventing cardiovascular disease. Statistical methods determine the differences between males and females in attending preventive check-ups, understanding and observing risk factors in their lifestyle, and having an interest in changing their lifestyle.
Methods: The survey uses a non-standardized questionnaire. Apart from demographic data, the questionnaire had 10 items assessing the respondent’s knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, 10 on lifestyle and attitudes to the change in lifestyle, and five regarding their interest in education about the subject. Exploratory data includes answers from 70 respondents, who were outpatients in a general practitioner’s department. Of these, 32 are males (46.0%) and 38 are females (54.0%). Results of the survey are analyzed using the Chi-Squared test.
Results: Fifty-four of the 70 respondents (55.7%; 20 males and 34 females) undertake preventive check-ups at the general practitioner’s department at least once in two years. No significant differences present between males and females in attending preventive check-ups (χ2 = 3.455; df = 1; P = 0.05) and in showing a willingness for a lifestyle change (χ2 = 1.789; P = 0.05). However, based on the given data, a significant difference presents between males and females regarding proper regime observance (χ2 = 18.651; df = 1; P = 0.05). For example, females know the observance of a healthy diet is necessary for preventing ischemic heart disease (χ2 = 20.124; df = 1; P = 0.05).
Conclusion: The study shows that the difference between males and females is significant regarding their understanding of risk factors related to lifestyle and proper regime observance. Thus, education could lead to reducing or eliminating such risk factors. Prevention of risk factors is complex and lifelong. Under conditions of the Slovak health service, registered nurses are responsible for the education of patients.
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