SIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFANT PHYSIOLOGY AND SALIVA ASPIRATION
AbstractA sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is diagnosed in the case of a sudden and unexpected death of an infant during sleep and where an autopsy shows no obvious pathological lesions or injuries. Although literature indicates a wide range of risk factors, there is no single opinion on the specific cause of SIDS. This paper describes a study of 191 infant deaths in which the State Forensic Medicine Service established 29 SIDS cases. Microscopical and histological results of samples taken from sections of the respiratory system reveal serous fluid in the alveoli and change specific to asphyxia in all autopsy cases of infants diagnosed with SIDS. The risk of SIDS is highest in infants aged 1–4 months. Salivary gland secretion increases with the development of infant physiology, and this increase coincides with infant teething. However, in this phase, an infant’s swallowing reflex is still to form completely. Findings suggest that the serous fluid found in the alveoli was from the salivary glands, and thus, saliva aspiration may be associated with infant deaths due to SIDS.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk (Vol. 116).
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). A pediatric guide to children's oral health.
Arvedson, J. C. (2006, May 16). Swallowing and feeding in infants and young children. Retrieved from GI Motility online.
Campbell, K. (1971). Possible role of saliva in the sudden infant-death syndrome. Lancet, 2(7737), 1314-1315.
Castiglia, P. (1992). Teething. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 6(3), 153-154.
Ekberg, O. (2012). Dysphagia. Diagnosis and Treatment.
Gavel, G., & Walker, R. (2014). Laryngospasm in anaesthesia. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain, 14(2), 47-51.
Gilbert-Barness, E., & Debich-Spicer, D. (2005). Handbook of pediatric autopsy pathology.
Heinrich, I., & Johannes, Z. (2014). Salivary gland diseases in children. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg,13, Doc06.
Ikari, T., & Sasaki, C. T. (1980). Laryngospasm: a neurophysiological definition. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 89, 220-224.
Janette, B., & Marshall Haith, B. (2009). Diseases and disorders in infancy and early childhood (1 ed.).
Jeffery, H. E., Megevand, A., & Page, H. (1999). Why the prone position is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 104(2 Pt 1), 263-269.
Lakraj, A. A., Narges, M., & Bahman, J. (2013). Sialorrhea: anatomy, pathophysiology and treatment with emphasis on the role of botulinum toxins. Toxins, 5, 1010-1031.
Leung, A., & Pion Kao, C. (1999). Drooling in children. Pediatr Child Health, 4(6), 406-411.
Memarpour, M., Soltanimehr, E., & Eskandarian, T. (2015). Signs and symptoms associated with primary tooth eruption: a clinical trial of nonphar-macological remedies. BMC Oral Health, 15, 88.
Mohan, P. (2002). Aspiration in infants and children. Pediatrics in review, 23(9), 330-331.
Moon, R. Y., & Fu, L. (2012). Sudden infant death syndrome: an update. Pediatr Rev, 33(7), 314-320.
Moon, R. Y., Darnall, R. A., Goodstein, M. H., & Hauck, F. R. (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128(5), 1341-67.
Nicory, C. (1922). Salivary Secretion in Infants. Biochem J, 16(3), 387-389.
Oyen, N., Markestad, T., Skaerven, R., Irgens, L. M., Helweg-Larsen, K., Alm, B. B., et al. (1997). Combined effects of sleeping position and prenatal risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome: the Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study. Pediatrics, 100 (4), 613-621.
Rodier, P. (1994). Vulnerable periods and processes during central nervous system development. Environ Health Perspect, 102(2), 121-124.
Scragg, R. K., & Mitchell, E. A. (1998). Side sleeping position and bed sharing in the sudden infant death syndrome. Ann Med, 30(4), 345-349.
Sharma, B. R. (2007). Sudden infant death syndrome: a subject of medicolegal research. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 28(1), 69-72.
Stevenson, R. D., & Allaire, J. H. (1991). The development of normal feeding and swallowing. Pediatr Clin North Am, 38(6), 1439-1453.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz