DETERMINATION OF SOME ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS OF FIRST INFANT MILK FORMULA AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
AbstractBreast milk is suggested as the best method for baby nourishment by The World Health Organization (WHO, 2003). However, in some cases, breastfeeding is not possible due to different metabolic reasons. In such cases, an infant formula that is similar to the breast milk content is designed to meet infant nourishment requirements during the first 6 months after birth. It is important to know the content of infant milk formula for a baby’s health. The purpose of this presented study is to determine the elemental (Fe, Cu, Al, Cd, As, Ni, Ba) contents of the four different brands of first infant milk formula sold in the Turkish markets. Elemental contents of samples were identified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) after a microwave digestion process. Target hazard quotients (THQ) of analyzed elements were calculated and risk analyses were conducted. According to the results, the hazard indexes (HI) of infant milk formula samples were founded as less than 1 and all samples were included in the low risk group.
Boyle, J. S. (2016, April 13). Pediatric Iron Toxicity [Web blog post]. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1011689-overview
Das, K.K., Das, S.N., & Dhundasi S.A. (2008). Nickel, its adverse health effects & oxidative stres. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 128 (2008) 412-425.
Demir, F., Kipcak, A.S., Dere Ozdemir, O., Moroydor Derun, E., & Piskin, S. (2015). Determination and Comparison of Some Elements in Different Types of Orange Juices and Investigation of Health Effects. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. 9(5) 545-549.
Hong, Y. S., Song, K. H., & Chung, J. Y. (2014). Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure. Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health. 47(5) 245–252.
Hou, X., & Bradley, T. J. (2000). Inductively Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectrometry. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. 9468–9485
Islam, S., Ahmed, K., Al-Mamun, H., & Raknuzzaman, M. (2015).The concentration,source and potential human health risk of heavy metals in the commonly consumed foods in Bangladesh. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 122 (2015) 462–469.
Ljung, K., Palm, B., Grandér, M., & Vahter, M. (2011). High concentrations of essential and toxic elements in infant formula and infant foods – A matter of concern. Food Chemistry. 127 (3) 943-951.
Mehrnia, M. A., & Bashti, A. (2014). Evaluation of Toxic Element Contents in Infant Foods Commercially Available in Iran. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences. 3 (2014) 249-253.
Michaelsen, K. F., Weaver, L., Branca, F., & Robertson, A. (2003). Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children,. Guidelines fort he WHO Europan Region. WHO Regional Publications European Serises. 87.
Odhiambo, V. O., Wanjau, R., Odundo, J. O.,& Nawiri, M. P. (2015). Toxic trace elements in different brands of milk infant formulae in Nairobi market, Kenya. African Journal of Food Science. 9 (8) 437-440.
Shaheen, N., Irfan, N. M., Khan, I. N., Islam, S., Islam, M. S., & Ahmed, M. K. (2016). Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: Health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere. 152 (2016) 431-438.
Sipahi, H., Eken, A., Aydın, A., Sahin, G., & Baydar, T. (2014). Safety assessment of essential and toxic metals in infant Formula. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics. 56 (2014) 385-391.
Sivakumar, S., Khatiwada, C.P., & J. Sivasubramanian. (2014). Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bonetissue of musmusculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protectiveaction of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques. Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 126 (2014) 59–67.
Tripathi, R.M., Raghunath, R., Sastry, V.N., & Krishnamoorthy T.M. (1999). Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products. The Science of the Total Environment. 227 (2–3) 229–235.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 105.3(e).
Wu, Y., Zhang, H., Liu, G., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Yu, Y. , & Lu, S. (2016).Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China. Chemosphere. 144 (2016) 564–570.
Yalcın, T., Kipcak, A. S., Ozdemir, O. D., & Derun E. M. (2014). Examination of the Lemon Effect on Non-Essential Element Concentrations of Herbal and Fruit Teas. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 32 (6) 555–562
Yu, M., Liu, Y., Acha, Y., Fu, Q. L., & Li, L. (2015). Health Risk Assessment of Al and Heavy Metals in Milk Products for Different Age Groups in China. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 24 (6) 2707-2714.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz