• Ugo Arrigo Department of Business Administration, Finance, Management and Law, University of Milano-Bicocca
  • Giacomo Di Foggia Department of Business Administration, Finance, Management and Law, University of Milano-Bicocca
Keywords: Railways, State aid, Deregulation, Transport economics, Subsidies, Europe, Competition


The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the evolution of both schemes and levels of public support to railway sector in selected European countries. Although prior research sheds some light on this topic, more information is required to clarify national obligations under European railway liberalisation law regarding incentives toward railway undertakings. Focusing on Italy, besides the reduction of capital grants, justified by the completion of the high-speed line Turin-Milan-Naples, this paper finds an increasing support to the service operators and in the meantime a reduction of subsidies aimed at financing network operations. This shift of resources may undermine competition. The findings of this study help to fill the gap in estimating State aid to European  railways.


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