MEDICAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: ATTEMPT AT CLASSIFICATION
AbstractMedical tourism potential of CEE is currently not clearly identified due to the lack of data concerning the number of medical tourists in respective countries. The aim of the present study is to shed light on potential research topics in the field of medical tourism. A detailed analysis of scientific and consulting literature was used to identify the elements of medical tourism potential. The agglomerative clustering algorithm forms distinct groups of countries that are similar with regard to that potential. Creating the statistical synthetic measures allows one to construct the ranking of countries with respect to their potential regarding medical tourism. Four distinct groups of countries emerge from the cluster analysis. It was found that the countries from the European Union (EU), which are characterized by higher economic indicators, create similar clusters and take the highest positions in the ranking. Surprisingly, the price level is not the top criterion determining the position within the classification. The obtained results fill the gap in the field of medical tourism in CEE and have implications for further research related to medical tourism. This classification could be a useful tool for the various stakeholders interested in the development potential of medical tourism in this part of Europe
Global Peace Index: Measuring peace, its causes and its economics value. (2015). Report 34. Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved from http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Global-Peace-Index-Report-2015_0.pdf
Beladi, H., Chao, Ch.-Ch., Ee, M. S., & Hollas, D. (2015). Medical tourism and health worker migration in developing countries. Economic Modelling, 46, 391–396. doi:10.1016/j.econmod.2014.12.045
Björnberg, A. (2016). Euro Health Consumer Index 2015. Report. Health Consumer Powerhouse Ltd., Täby. Retrieved from http://www.healthpowerhouse.com/files/EHCI_2015/EHCI_2015_report.pdf
Brazdil, P.B., & Soares, C. (2000). A comparison of ranking methods for classification algorithm selection. In: de Mántaras, R. & Plaza, E. (Eds.), Machine Learning: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Machine Learning ECML 2000. Springer, Berlin, pp. 63–74.
Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism Management, 34, 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.009
Crooks, V.A., Turner, L., Snyder, J., Johnston, R., & Kingsbury, P. (2011). Promoting medical tourism to India: Messages, images, and the marketing of international patient travel. Social Science & Medicine,72, 726–732. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.12.022
Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Official Journal of the European Union, 50(88), 45.
Eurostat. Statistics Explained (2015). Retrieved fromhttp://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/File:Hospital_beds,_2001,_2006_and_2011_(per_100_000_inhabitants)_YB15_bis.png
Fetscherin,M., & Stephano, R. M. (2016). The medical tourism index: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 52, 539–556. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2015.08.010
Hellwig, Z. (1968). On the optimal choice of predictors. Study VI. In: Gostkowski, Z. (Ed.), Toward a system of quantitative indicators of components of human resources development. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1–23.
Iordache, C., Ciochină, I., & Popa, R. (2013). Medical tourism – between the content and socio-economic development goals. Development strategies. Romanian Journal of Marketing, 1, 31–42.
Karmowska, G., & Marciniak, M. (2015). Spatial diversification of living standards in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Comparative Economic Research,18(4), 123–138. doi:10.1515/cer-2015-0032
Kesar, O., & Rimac, K. (2011). Medical tourism development in Croatia. Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business,14(2), 107–134.
Kiss, K. (2015). The challenges of developing health tourism in the Balkans. Tourism, 63, 97–110.
Kukuła, K., & Bogocz, D. (2014). Zero unitarization method and its application in ranking research in agriculture. Economic and Regional Studies, 7(3), 5–13.
Langvinienė, N. (2014). Changing patterns in the health tourism services sector in Lithuania. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,156, 310–316. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.11.194
Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A., & Rab-Przybyłowicz, J. (2015). Wybrane aspekty funkcjonowania rynku turystyki medycznej w Polsce. Folia Turistica, 34, 85–107.
Lunt, N., Smith, R.D., Mannion, R., Green, S.T., Exworthy, M., Hanefeld, J., & et al. (2014). Implications for the NHS of inward and outward medical tourism: A policy and economic analysis using literature review and mixed-methods approaches. Health Services and Delivery Research, 2(2), 1–234. doi:10.3310/hsdr02020
Marinau, C., Csosz, I., Martin, S. C., & Ciolac, R. (2009). European experience in the field of health tourism, overview of the countries of Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. Management Agricol, 11(4), 279–288.
Rab-Przybyłowicz, J. (2016). Medical tourism: Theoretical considerations. Studia Periegetica, 2, 13–31.
Romaniuk P., & Szromek, A.R. (2016). The evolution of the health system outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe and their association with social, economic and political factors: An analysis of 25 years of transition. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 95. doi:10.1186/s12913-016-1344-3
Smith, M., & Puczkó, L. (2014).Health, tourism and hospitality: Wellness, spas and medical travel. 2nd ed. Routledge, London.
Smith, M., Puczkó, L., Michalkó, G., Kiss, K., & Sziva, I. (2016). Balkan wellbeing and health tourism study. Final Report. MetropolitanUniversity, Budapest. Retrieved from http://infota.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BalkanWellbeingFINALREPORT.pdf
Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. (2015). World Economic Forum, New York. Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/travel-and-tourism-competitiveness-report-2015/index-results-the-travel-tourism-competitiveness-index-ranking-2015/
Treatment Abroad. (2015). Compare the cost of treatment abroad. Retrieved from http://www.treatmentabroad.com/costs
UNGEGN. (2016).East Central and South-East Europe Division. Retrieved from http://ecseed.zrc-sazu.si
Ward, J. H. (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 58(301), 236–244.
WHO. (2015). Regional office for Europe. Retrieved fromhttp://www.euro.who.int/en/countries
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 - CC BY 3.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
email@example.com, www.iseic.cz, ojs.journals.cz