• Barbora Holienková University of Constantine the Phillosopher in Nitra and University of Constantine the Phillosopher in Nitra
  • Zuzana Krumpálová University of Constantine the Phillosopher in Nitra
Keywords: urbanism, malacofauna, Helix lucorum, invasion


Recently, the number of alien landscape species has dramatically increased, and this could be a serious threat, not only for native species but also in cases of outbreaks for farmers. Our objective was to examine the impact of the urban environment (positive or negative) on the diversity of native species; forecast biotic homogenization or diversification of urban fauna; and determine the extent to which each of the zones are affected by invasive species. To examine the effect of urbanization, we selected 16 areas (across three urban zones and one zone in the protected area for comparison) for this study in 2015 in Nitra. We found that snails in open locations had significantly greater species diversity and abundance of individuals than in closed locations. Slightly degraded areas had the most abundant snail species, but areas heavily disturbed had high species diversity and incidence of individuals. It appears that heavily disturbed areas are suitable as new types of refuge for snails, e.g., for Helix lucorum, which was recorded in Slovakia for the first time (numerically recorded at the railway station) in 2014.


Baiser, B., Olden, J. D., Record, S., Lockwood, J. L., & McKinney, M. L. (2012). Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea. Proc. Biol. Sci., 279, 4772–4777. 10.1098/rspb.2012.1651.

Clergeau, P., Tapko, N., & Fontaine, B. (2011). A simplified method for conducting ecological studies of land snail communities in urban landscapes. Ecological Research, 26, (3), 515–521.

Čejka, T., & Čačaný, J. (2014). The first record of the Turkish snail (Helix lucorum L., 1758) in the Slovak Republic. Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, 13, 124–125. ISSN 1336-6939.

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. version 1.98.

Horsák, M., Juřičková, L., Kintrová, K., & Hájek, O. (2009). Patters of land snail diversity over a gradient of habitat degradation: a comparison of three Czech cites. Biodiversity Conservation (2009), 18, 3453-3466. DOI 10.1007/s10531-009-9654-y.

Horsák, M., Juřičková, L., & Picka, J. (2013). Měkkýši České a Slovenské republiky. Nakladatelství Kabourek, Zlín, 270s [Molluscs Czech and Slovak Republic. Kabourek publishers , Zlin 270s]. ISBN 978-80-86447-15-5.

Lisický, M. (1991). Mollusca Slovenska. Veda, vydav. Slov. akad. vied, Bratislava, 344s [Science , issues . Words. akad. Sciences, Bratislava, 344s].

Lososová, Z., Horsák, M., Chytrý, M., Čejka, T., Danihelka, J., Fajmon, K., Hájek, O., Juřičková, L., Kintrová, K., Láníková, D., Otýpková, Z., Řehořek, V., & Tichý, L. (2011). Diversity of Central European urban biota: effects of human made habitat types on plants and land snails. Journal of Biogeography (J. Biogeogr.) (2011), 1152–1163.

Lososová, Z., Chytrý, M., Tichý, L., Danihelka, J., & Fajmon, K. (2012a). Native and alien floras in urban habitats: a comparison across 32 cities of central Europe. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 21, 545–555. DOI:10.1111/j. 1466-8238.2011.00704.x.

Lososová, Z., Chytrý, M., Tichý, L., Danihelka, J., & Fajmon, K. (2012b). Biotic homogenization of Central European urban floras depends on residence time of alien species and habitat types. Biol. Conserv., 179–184. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.003.

Ložek, V. (1956). Klíč československých měkkýšů. SAV, Bratislava, 437s [Key Czechoslovak shellfish . SAV , Bratislava , 437s].

Olden, J. D. & Poff, N. L. (2003). Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. The American Naturalist162(4), 442–460. DOI: 10.1086/378212. PubMed: 14582007.

Országh, I., Čejka, T., & Országhová, Z. (2012). Slovenské mená mäkkýšov. Univerzita Komenského, Bratislava, 207s [Slovak names shellfish . Comenius University, Bratislava , 207s]. ISBN 978-80-223-3170-8.

Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Chytrý, M., Jarošík, V., Wild, J., Grapow, L. C., Gassó, J., Kenis, M., Lambdon, P. W., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Roques, A., Sádlo, J., Solarz, W., Vila, M., & Hulme, P. E. (2010). Contrasting patterns in the invasions of European terrestrial and freshwater habitats by alien plants, insects and vertebrates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(3), 317–331. DOI:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00514.x.

Tischler, W. (1949). Grundzüge der terrestrischen tierökologie. Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn. Braunschweig, 219 s [

Broad terrestrial animal ecology . Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn . Braunschweig , 219 s].